alexa

GET THE APP

Dersleri yüzünden oldukça stresli bir ruh haline sikiş hikayeleri bürünüp özel matematik dersinden önce rahatlayabilmek için amatör pornolar kendisini yatak odasına kapatan genç adam telefonundan porno resimleri açtığı porno filmini keyifle seyir ederek yatağını mobil porno okşar ruh dinlendirici olduğunu iddia ettikleri özel sex resim bir masaj salonunda çalışan genç masör hem sağlık hem de huzur sikiş için gelip masaj yaptıracak olan kadını gördüğünde porn nutku tutulur tüm gün boyu seksi lezbiyenleri sikiş dikizleyerek onları en savunmasız anlarında fotoğraflayan azılı erkek lavaboya geçerek fotoğraflara bakıp koca yarağını keyifle okşamaya başlar
Topical Analgesics: Critical Issues Related to Formulation and Concentration | OMICS International | Abstract
ISSN: 2167-0846

Journal of Pain & Relief
Open Access

Our Group organises 3000+ Global Conferenceseries Events every year across USA, Europe & Asia with support from 1000 more scientific Societies and Publishes 700+ Open Access Journals which contains over 50000 eminent personalities, reputed scientists as editorial board members.

Open Access Journals gaining more Readers and Citations
700 Journals and 15,000,000 Readers Each Journal is getting 25,000+ Readers

This Readership is 10 times more when compared to other Subscription Journals (Source: Google Analytics)

Short Communication

Topical Analgesics: Critical Issues Related to Formulation and Concentration

Keppel Hesselink JM*

Department of Molecular Pharmacology, Pain Specialist, Faculty of Health, University of Witten, Germany

*Corresponding Author:
Keppel Hesselink JM
Department of Molecular Pharmacology, Pain Specialist
Faculty of Health, University of Witten/Herdecke, Germany
Tel: 06-51700527
E-mail: [email protected]

Received date: October 31, 2016; Accepted date: November 09, 2016; Published date: November 11, 2016

Citation: Hesselink JMK (2016) Topical Analgesics: Critical Issues Related to Formulation and Concentration. J Pain Relief 5:274. doi: 10.4172/2167-0846.1000274

Copyright: © 2016 Hesselink JMK, 2016. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.

Abstract

Topical analgesics are in need to be differentiated from transdermal formulations of analgesics. Topical analgesics are characterized by local analgesic effects in the absence of systemic effects, and do not require a transdermal delivery formulation. There are two key issues in the development of topical analgesics. 1. For optimal clinical effects specific characteristics for the vehicle (a cream base or gel base) are required, depending on the physicochemical characteristics of the pharmaceutical active ingredient in the carrier. 2. One cannot and should not skip well designed phase II dose-finding studies, and this unfortunately happens often, as we will discuss in this paper. In fact, we will demonstrate underdosing is one of the major hurdles to detect meaningful and statistically relevant clinical effects of topical analgesics. In the case of gels or creams containing ketamine, amitriptyline and baclofen, the dose-finding most probably needs to start at 10% for ketamine and amitriptyline and 2.5% for baclofen, while the doses tested were much lower: 4%, 2% and 1% respectively. Topical analgesics are promising inroads for the treatment of neuropathic pain, once sufficient attention is given to aspects such as formulation and concentration.

Keywords

Google Scholar citation report
Citations : 975

Journal of Pain & Relief received 975 citations as per Google Scholar report

Journal of Pain & Relief peer review process verified at publons
Indexed In
  • Index Copernicus
  • Google Scholar
  • Open J Gate
  • Genamics JournalSeek
  • Cosmos IF
  • RefSeek
  • Hamdard University
  • EBSCO A-Z
  • OCLC- WorldCat
  • Publons
  • Geneva Foundation for Medical Education and Research
  • Euro Pub
Share This Page
Top