Dersleri yüzünden oldukça stresli bir ruh haline sikiş hikayeleri bürünüp özel matematik dersinden önce rahatlayabilmek için amatör pornolar kendisini yatak odasına kapatan genç adam telefonundan porno resimleri açtığı porno filmini keyifle seyir ederek yatağını mobil porno okşar ruh dinlendirici olduğunu iddia ettikleri özel sex resim bir masaj salonunda çalışan genç masör hem sağlık hem de huzur sikiş için gelip masaj yaptıracak olan kadını gördüğünde porn nutku tutulur tüm gün boyu seksi lezbiyenleri sikiş dikizleyerek onları en savunmasız anlarında fotoğraflayan azılı erkek lavaboya geçerek fotoğraflara bakıp koca yarağını keyifle okşamaya başlar
Reach Us +44-330-822-4832


Transcranial Direct Current Stimulation in Neuropathic Pain | OMICS International | Abstract

Our Group organises 3000+ Global Conferenceseries Events every year across USA, Europe & Asia with support from 1000 more scientific Societies and Publishes 700+ Open Access Journals which contains over 50000 eminent personalities, reputed scientists as editorial board members.

Open Access Journals gaining more Readers and Citations
700 Journals and 15,000,000 Readers Each Journal is getting 25,000+ Readers

This Readership is 10 times more when compared to other Subscription Journals (Source: Google Analytics)

Research Article

Transcranial Direct Current Stimulation in Neuropathic Pain

Niran Ngernyam1#, Mark P Jensen2##, Narong Auvichayapat3#, Wiyada Punjaruk1# and Paradee Auvichayapat1#*
#Member of Noninvasive Brain Stimulation Research Group of Thailand
##Consultant to Noninvasive Brain Stimulation Research Group of Thailand
1Department of Physiology, Faculty of Medicine, Khon Kaen University, Khon Kaen, Thailand
2Department of Rehabilitation Medicine, University of Washington, Washington, USA
3Department of Pediatrics, Faculty of Medicine, Khon Kaen University, Khon Kaen, Thailand
Corresponding Author : Dr. Paradee Auvichayapat, MD
Associate Professor of Physiology
Department of Physiology, Faculty of Medicine
Khon Kaen University, Khon Kaen, Thailand, 40002
Received March 23, 2013; Accepted April 19, 2013; Published April 21, 2013
Citation: Ngernyam N, Jensen MP, Auvichayapat N, Punjaruk W, Auvichayapat P (2013) Transcranial Direct Current Stimulation in Neuropathic Pain. J Pain Relief S3:001. doi: 10.4172/2167-0846.S3-001
Copyright: © 2013 Ngernyam N, et al. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.


Neuropathic pain (NP) is one of the most common problems contributing to suffering and disability worldwide. Unfortunately, NP is also largely refractory to treatments, with a large number of patients continuing to report significant pain even when they are receiving recommended medications and physical therapy. Thus, there remains an urgent need for additional effective treatments. In recent years, nonpharmacologic brain stimulation techniques have emerged as potential therapeutic options. Many of these techniques and procedures – such as transcranial magnetic stimulation, spinal cord stimulation, deep brain stimulation, and motor cortical stimulation – have very limited availability, particularly in developing countries. Transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) is a noninvasive brain stimulation procedure that has shown promise for effectively treating NP, and also has the potential to be widely available. This review describes tDCS and the tDCS procedures and principles that may be helpful for treating NP. The findings indicate that the analgesic benefits of tDCS can occur both during stimulation and beyond the time of stimulation. The mechanisms of cortical modulation by tDCS may involve various activities in neuronal networks such as increasing glutamine and glutamate under the stimulating electrode, effects on the μ-opioid receptor, and restoration of the defective intracortical inhibition. Additional research is needed to determine (1) the factors that may moderate the efficacy of tDCS, (2) the dose (e.g. number and frequency of treatment sessions) that results in the largest benefits and (3) the long-term effects of tDCS treatment.