Apple Cider Vinegar (ACV®) Displays Potent Antibiotic Activity Directly Against Escherichia Coli And Candida Albicans And Within In Vitro Monocytes Exposed To Microbes By Inhibiting Inflammatory Cytokine Secretion | 71847
Journal of Infectious Diseases & Therapy
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Apple cider vinegar (ACV®) displays potent antibiotic activity directly against Escherichia coli and Candida albicans and within in vitro monocytes exposed to microbes by inhibiting inflammatory cytokine secretion
Introduction: Extraintestinal pathogenic Escherichia coli (E-coli) are the most frequent cause of blood borne, urinary tract
and hospital acquired infections. Candida albicans infection can also pose a huge threat especially following transplantation
and to immune compromised patients. Globally there has never been a more desperate time for novel anti-microbial agents to
target microbes and multi drug resistance from bacterial or fungal associated infections.
Aim: The aim of this study was to investigate the potential anti-microbial effects of ACV®. We used microbial strains: E. coli
strain 6571, C. albicans strain 90828 purchased from ATCC.
Methodology: We tested the effect of commercial ACV® directly on microbial cultures over a 24 hour period, measuring
inhibition zones. We also looked at whether ACV® could have an anti-inflammatory effect in vitro. This was tested using human
blood derived monocytes which were incubated with microbes and AVC®. The collected supernatants were analyzed for proinflammatory
cytokine secretion by ELISA.
Results: When monocytes were cultured with both microbes they secreted TNFα and IL-1β. ACV® was able to significantly
inhibit E-coli growth demonstrated by the results of direct co-culture with each of the microbial inoculums and ACV® in
varying concentrations. The zone of inhibition with the addition of ACV® to each of the microbes varied dose dependently
ACV® concentration. For Candida albicans undiluted ACV® had the strongest effect, whereas on E-coli cultures, the most
potent effect was visible at lower dilutions including 1/1000 dilution of the neat solution (p<0.05). When monocytes were
cultured with both microbes they secreted inflammatory cytokines (TNFα, IL-1β) ACV® was effective in significantly inhibiting
inflammatory cytokine secretion in human peripheral blood monocytes cultured with E. coli and Candida albicans
Conclusion and significance: ACV® displayed potent anti-microbial and anti-inflammatory activity against E. coli and Candida
albicans. We propose that ACV® could be potentially therapeutic in cases of antibiotic resistance and sepsis.
Darshna Yagnik is a Lecturer of Immunology and Biomedical Sciences at Middlesex University. Her research is based on human in vitro models of mononuclear cell differentiation and their role in inflammatory pathways and particularly the resolution phase of inflammation.
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