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Biomaterials And Tissue Engineering Approaches For Soft Tissue Reconstruction | 4854
ISSN: 2155-952X

Journal of Biotechnology & Biomaterials
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Biomaterials and tissue engineering approaches for soft tissue reconstruction

3rd World Congress on Biotechnology

Naveen Kumar

ScientificTracks Abstracts: J Biotechnol Biomater

DOI: 10.4172/2155-952X.S1.009

The clinical need for strong, biocompatible materials that encourage integration while minimizing adverse reaction, such as tissue reaction and adhesion formation, is apparent. Yet, the design of optimal surgical repair materials to reinforce or replace soft tissue remains problematic. When normal tissues fail, surgeons are confronted with the challenge of manipulating available healthy anatomy in such a manner as to produce normal form and function in the affected region. Local circumstances will vary, depending on the etiologic factors involved. Congenital anomalies, acute trauma, premature tissue deterioration, and the consequences of ablative surgery all present different local circumstances with which the reconstructive surgeon must deal. At the cellular level, however, it makes no difference how the tissue fails. What does matter is a set of basic cell requirements and wound management principles common to all tissue reconstructive efforts. Most tissue engineering approaches to the restoration and repair of damaged tissues require a scaffold material upon which cells can attach, proliferate and differentiate into a functionally and structurally appropriate tissue for the body location into which it is placed. Tissue engineering is a multidisciplinary field which involves the application of the principles and methods of engineering and life sciences towards the fundamental understanding of structure-function relationships in normal and pathological mammalian tissues and the development of biological substitutes that restore, maintain or improve tissue function. The goal of tissue engineering as a treatment concept is to replace or restore the anatomic structure and function of damaged, injured or missing tissue or organs following any injury or pathological process by combining biomaterials, cells or tissue, biologically active molecules and or stimulating mechanical forces of the tissue microenvironment. One of the principle methods behind tissue engineering involves growing the relevant cell(s) in vitro into the required three-dimensional (3D) organ or tissue. In our Biomaterials and Bioengineering Laboratory in Division of Surgery, IVRI we have optimized the protocols to prepare acellular matrix from different organs/tissues. The tissue which has been made acellular included rumen sub mucosal wall, urinary bladder, tendon, ligaments, diaphragm, pericardium, aorta, dermal matrices and intestinal sub mucosa of bovine and porcine origin. These acellular matrices were further evaluated in experimental animals as well as in clinical cases in case of reconstructive surgery. Acellular dermal graft of xenogenic origin (bovine) was found biocompatible for the repair of abdominal wall defect in a rabbit model without any crosslinking agent or after crosslinking with glutaraldehyde. These matrixes were used as without crosslinking or they were crosslinked to delay the resorption of these matrices in the body so that the reconstruction and repair of the tissue takes place. The crosslinking agents used includes glutaraldehyde, hexamethyl diisocyante, 1, 4-butanediol diglycidyl ether and 1-ethyl-3-(3-dimethyl aminopropyl carbodiimide. Besides using these biological origin biomaterials we have also tested synthetic materials like carbon fibres, carbon mesh, nylon mesh and polypropylene mesh for the reconstructive surgery in small animals as well as large animals. Carbon fibres were found very good biocompatible scaffold for the repair and reconstruction of tendon and abdominal wall defects. Other materials proved good in reconstruction of large defects of abdominal wall. We have developed some protocols for de-epithelization the skin in different species of animals, viz. rabbit, sheep, goat, buffalo and pig. In these protocols enzymes have been used for de-epithelization of the skin. We have also developed some patentable protocols for acellularity of de-epithelized skin. Acellular dermal matrix was been prepared using different combinations of enzymes, anionic and non-ionic biological detergents. These acellular dermal matrices were used for tissue engineering and for three dimensional culture configurations to promote 3-D tissue organization. The findings will be discussed at the time of presentation. There can be no doubt that the most widely recognized applications of biomaterials involve those situations where a tissue or organ has suffered from some disease or condition that has resulted in pain, malfunction or structural degeneration, and which can only be alleviated by the replacement or augmentation of the affected part.
Naveen Kumar is Principal Scientist in the Division of Surgery, Indian Veterinary Research Institute. He was educated at College of Veterinary Sciences, Bikaner Rajasthan, receiving BVSc & AH degree and MVSc degree in Veterinary Surgery with First Class. He obtained PhD degree from Deemed University, IVRI, Izatnagar, Uttarpradesh. He joined Indian Veterinary Research Institute as Scientist in year 1989 and subsequently he became Principal Scientist in 1996. He has been associated with more than 7 extramural funded projects and 10 institute projects. He is now working as principal investigator of a DBT funded project entitled ?Development of 3-D biodegradable dermal matrices for reconstructive surgery?.