Disease Biomarkers For Studies On Tuberculosis (TB) And TB Diagnostic Applications | 64927
Journal of Infectious Diseases & Therapy
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Approximately, two billion people worldwide are infected with Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb), the etiologic agent of tuberculosis
(TB). A tenth of the infected individuals develop active disease. Active pulmonary TB is an inflammatory disease and is
increasingly viewed as an imbalance of host immune responses to Mtb infection. The current frontline diagnostic methods including
sputum smear (SS) microscopy and X-ray are insensitive, inefficient, cumbersome or too expensive. The most widely used test, SS
microscopy (WHO standard) test has a low sensitivity. Therefore, there is an urgent need for low cost, efficient, high-throughput
and accurate diagnostic approaches. We have developed multiplex antibody biomarker based TB diagnostic system. Data from
proof-of-concept and subsequent field studies have shown that this approach will enable a scalable, flexible and cost effective model
for diagnostic applications. In addition, we have published 10 plasma cytokine/chemokine biomarkers representing host immuneresponses
in TB patients, are not only gender biased but concentrations of some of these biomarkers (e.g., IP-10, MIG, IL-16, IFN-α
and G-CSF) progressively decreased in patients which responded to anti-tuberculosis treatment (ATT) with a cocktail of several
drugs (isoniazid, rifampin, ethambutol, and pyrazinamide or streptomycin-WHO standard). These decreases strongly correlated
treatment success and can be used for monitoring efficacy of therapy. This is important because ATT is a drawn out process (at least
six months), and early detection of patients who may not respond to therapy is important. One possible reason for not responding
to ATT could be due to infection with multi-drug resistant (MDR) strain of Mtb. The standard culture based drug sensitivity testing
can take several weeks. Therefore, there is a need for rapid molecular tests. A test, based on multiplex gene amplification (multiplex
PCR), of several Mtb genes involved in drug resistance, and multiplex detection of the relevant gene mutations to detect resistance
against four TB drugs will also be discussed.
Imran H Khan completed his PhD in Molecular and Cellular Biology at Albert Einstein College of Medicine, USA. His research program has focused on “Infectious diseases, intracellular signaling pathways, molecular biology” for over 15 years. Since 2002, he has worked on developing highly efficient and high throughput multiplex approaches for infectious disease biomarkers (e.g., tuberculosis). His research includes simultaneous analysis of multiple key components of cell signaling pathways in a single reaction vessel. In addition, he has employed novel approaches to study disease related biomarkers (e.g., immune biomarkers) in bodily fluids (e.g., plasma/serum) by combining the power of multiplexing systems and computational modeling. Results of his research have been published in peer reviewed journals for the development of novel methods in biomarker profiling for cancer, inflammatory diseases and infectious diseases.