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Introduction: Breast malignancy is one of the leading causes of death in female worldwide. In Pakistani females breast carcinoma is
the most repeatedly diagnosed malignancy. There are a number of risk factors associated with breast cancer but in Karachi Pakistan
there is insufficient data available.
Materials & Methods: A case control study was conducted on females, age group between 30-80. This study was done by a retrospective
data collection from a proforma obtained prior to mammography in Aga Khan University Hospital Karachi, Pakistan. A total of 108
females with primary malignancy of breast were included and 108 controls were also included from same data. Cases were defined as
female patients with a histo-pathological proof of breast malignancy. An equal number of controls were selected from same cohort
of patient. The controls were healthy with normal mammogram. Relationship of these factors with disease was studied using logistic
regression to calculate Odds ratios (ORs) and 95 % confidence interval (CIs). Male cases were excluded and exclusion criteria for
controls were those with endocrine disorders, known malignant, hormonal disease, gynecological diseases.
Results: A total of 14 variables were analyzed and based on Odds ratio and confidence interval for each of breast cancer factors 7
variables were found to be “the risk factors” for development of breast cancer, these factors were the older age, family history of breast
cancer, family history of other carcinomas, personal history of breast carcinoma, early age of menarche, older age of mother at first
delivery and lesser number of children. Five factors i.e. parity, breast feeding, Oral Contraceptive Pills consumption, past history
of oophorectomy and hysterectomy showed protective association. One variable i.e. use of hormonal replacement therapy showed
controversial association and one of the variable i.e. the marital status was not significant in this study.
Conclusion: It is concluded that most of the well-known risk factors of breast cancer are also associated with breast cancer in the
female population of Karachi Pakistan. High risk patient can be focused by the help of this study and screening can be more effective
in the early diagnosis before clinically evident breast malignancy. The breast cancer screening program would be more preventive and
effective if high risk patients are highlighted by the clinician.
Saira Naz Sufian is an Assistant Professor of Radiation Oncology at The Aga Khan University Hospital. She specializes in the treatment of breast and gynecological cancers. Her research interests include Evaluation of common risk factors related with Breast Carcinoma in females.