Journal of Biotechnology & Biomaterials
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Background: Typhoid caused by Salmonella typhi remains a major health concern worldwide. The emergence of multidrugresistant
(MDR) strains of Salmonella with increased virulence leading to increased morbidity and mortality has further
complicated its management. Human typhoid is similar to the infection caused by Salmonella typhimurium in mice. Most of
the antibiotic are resistant and vaccines have less-than-desired efficacy and certain unacceptable side effects, making it pertinent
to search for new suitable formulation. Nitric oxide (NO) is a gaseous free radical molecules; produced in biological systems.
During enzymatic conversion of L-arginine to L citrulline by NO synthase (NOS) nitric oxide is produced. Ciprofloxacin one
such fluoroquinolones have been shown to achieve high intracellular concentrations and least resistant antibiotic used against
typhoid. Exogenous administration of L arginine results in increased NO production, indicating that endogenous substrate is
insufficient for maximal NO production. By considering these facts, it was thought to see the effect of oral administration of NO
donor i.e. L-arginine along with the low doses of antibiotic (ciprofloxacin).
Material and methods: NO estimation was done by the fluorometric method Misko et al., (1993) with slight modification.
Results and Discussion: Hepatic nitrite level in mice infected with 0.6xLD50 of S. typhimurium was 8.33%, higher than control
animals (treated with saline) at day 8,and in group B+Arg, B+Cip & B+1/2Arg+1/2Cip were 16.66%, and 12.5% & 10.25%
respectively as compared to only S. typhimurium infected mice. Formulation of L-arginine and ciprofloxacin shows better
therapeutic induction against typhoid.
Conclusion: This increase of nitrite level (metabolites of nitric oxide) is may be due to enhanced cytokine expression.
S.S. Haque Biochemist in Indira Gandhi Institute of Medical Sciences Patna-14 one of premier medical institute of India(www.igims.org) and did his
Ph.D (Biochemistry) from Hamdard University New Delhi -62 and awarded ?Bharat Joyoti? in 2012 and he is working on Typhoid and nitric oxide.
He has published more than 15 papers in reputed journals and serving as an editorial board member of different journal Associate editor of Journal
of Infectious Diseases Letters, ISSN: 0976-8904 & E-ISSN: 0976-8912, Editor of the Continental Journal of Biological Sciences, Web med central
(Open Access Biomedical Publisher Using Post Publication Peer Review) Appointed Biochemistry Faculty and Editorial board member International
Research Journal of Applied Life Sciences.
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