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The definition of a cosmetic identifies the site of application (epidermis, hair system, nails, lips, eyes) and the intended
functions (cleaning, perfuming, changing the appearance, correcting body odours, protecting and, keeping in good
Cosmetic formulations are that class of products whose atypical features can be well thought-out, from a biochemical and
toxicological point of view, as intermediary between both foods and drugs. For undeniably, the frequency of use of cosmetic
formulations is generally scheduled on a daily basis, and in some instances several cosmetic products, like, for example, a
lipstick or a hand cream, can be applied to the body twice or more times a day. Simultaneously, the techniques that are generally
used in the production of a great variety of cosmetic formulations are directly derived from the experience of pharmaceutics.
During the past decades the safety of cosmetic products and their ingredients has attracted greater than ever attention; thus
their toxicological safety evaluation is a relatively young discipline, which evolved in the second half of the 20th century. Up
to the 1960s it was commonly believed that cosmetic products will never go beyond the surface of the human body. Therefore,
local effects were the primary safety concern. The first consistent in vivo tests for skin and eye irritation were developed in the
Oral exposure can occur from wearing of cosmetic products containing heavy metal impurities around the mouth and also
from hand to mouth contact.
Sahar Y Issa has completed her Doctorate degree in Clinical Toxicology & Forensic Medicine in 2008, from Faculty of Medicine, Alexandria University, Egypt and is a Lecturer of Clinical Toxicology & Forensic Medicine in the same university. She is currently a Consultant Toxicologist, and the Medical Director, supervising Emergency Toxicology, Molecular Toxicology and Therapeutic Drug Monitoring units in Dammam Poison Control Center, MOH - Saudi Arabia. She has published more than 25 papers in reputed journals and serving as an Editorial Board Member of repute.