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Immunological Non Responder′s Real Or Virtual Phenomenon | 58156
ISSN: 2332-0877

Journal of Infectious Diseases & Therapy
Open Access

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Immunological non responder′s real or virtual phenomenon

4th World Congress on Infection Prevention and Control

Vivek Kattel, B Pradhan, P Karki, S Rijal, S Pandey, B Khanal and Y Agrawal

B.P. Koirala Institute of Health Sciences, Nepal

Posters & Accepted Abstracts: J Infect Dis Ther

DOI: 10.4172/2332-0877.C1.021

Abstract
Statement of the Problem: HIV and Hepatitis C viral Infection (HCV) have same mode of transmission. A subset of HIV people on antiretroviral therapy (ART) achieves virological suppression but poor recovery of CD4 cell termed as immunological nonresponders. It has been recommended to start HCV treatment in HIV co-infection if CD4 cells are more than 200/ml. Immunological non-responders could be a challenge to initiate HCV treatment especially in limited resources setting. Case Description: A 24 years intravenous drug abuser male with HCV for last three years presented as HIV positive (CD4-186/ml) on July 2008. Despite ZDV/3TC/EFV for six months he did not achieve immunological recovery but his viral load was below 400 copies per ml. On September 2009 he presented with fever and constitutional symptoms for two weeks. On examination he was pale, icteric and had hepatospleenomegaly. Investigation revealed pancytopenia, transaminitis, hepatospleenomegaly, sterile blood culture, normal chest X-ray, sputum for acid fast bacilli and PCR for Mycobacterium tubercle negative, negative rK-39, malaria negative. He had CD4 of 156/ml, HIV viral load 72 copies per ml and HCV RNA 15600 copies per ml. Bone marrow aspiration revealed 3+ Leishmania donovani (LD) bodies. ARV regimen was changed to TDF/3TC/EFV and tablet Miltefosine 50 mg twice a day for 28 days was initiated. He improved clinically and parasitologically. On April 2010 his second infection of Visceral Leishmaniasis (VL) was treated with injection Amphotericin B. On March 2011 and August 2012 he had third and fourth episode of VL infection and was treated with Amphotericin B plus Miltefosine and liposomal Amphotericin B respectively. However the fourth episode was continued with secondary prophylaxis for six months with immunological recovery (CD4 756/ml). On April 2015 his HCV was treated with 12 weeks Sofosbuvir and Daclatasvir with Rapid Viral and Sustained Viral Response. Significance: Immunological non responders might be virtual phenomena.
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