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The practical feasibility of ethosomal vesicles has been investigated in order to deliver ketoprofen though skin to systemic
circulation. Basically ethosomes exhibit lipid bilayers like liposomes; however they differ with liposomes in terms of
composition. Liposomes are composed of phosphatidyl choline and cholesterol whereas ethosomes contain high concentration of
ethanol in place of cholesterol. In the present project, the ethosomes were prepared, optimized and characterized. Vesicular shape,
size and entrapment efficiency were determined by transmission electron microscopy, dynamic light scattering and minicolumn
centrifugation technique, respectively. Vesicle sizes varied from 120.3?6.1 to 410.2?21.8 nm depending on the concentrations
of soya phosphatidyl choline (SPC) and ethanol. Entrapment efficiency increased with concentrations of SPC and ethanol. The
formulations exhibited entrapment efficiencies of 42-78%. In vitro release through cellophane membrane showed sustained
release of drug from ethosomal formulations in contrast to hydroalcoholic drug solution (HA) which released most of the drug
within 2-3 hrs. In vitro drug permeation across human skin revealed improved drug permeation and higher transdermal flux
with ethosomal formulations compared to hydroethanolic drug solution. Kinetics of in vitro skin permeation showed zero order
drug release from formulations. Based on in vitro transdermal flux, the estimated steady state in vivo plasma concentration from
ethosomes attained therapeutic drug levels whereas hydroalcoholic drug solution exhibited sub therapeutic drug concentration
with a patch size of 50 cm2. Skin permeation of ethosomal formulations assessed by confocal microscopy revealed enhanced
permeation of Rhodamine 123 loaded formulation in comparison to the hydroalcoholic solution.
Manish K. Chourasia has completed his M. Pharm and PhD from Dr. H.S. Gour University, Sagar, MP, India in the year 1999 and 2005, respectively.
He has completed postdoctoral studies from Department of Pharmacy, National University of Singapore, Singapore from 2007-2009. He is working
as Scientist in Pharmaceutics Division of CDRI, Lucknow. He has published more than 18 papers in reputed journals. He has also received quite
a few awards including university gold medal for undergraduate studies and CRS-Capsugel/Pfizer innovative aspects of oral drug delivery and
absorption Graduate/Post-Doc award, USA, for his PhD work on guar microspheres for colon targeted drug delivery
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