Journal of Biotechnology & Biomaterials
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Recent years have seen the development of novel technologies using nanoparticles and microparticles to deliver vaccines
by the oral and transdermal route of administration. These new technologies enable the formulation of vaccine particles
containing vaccine antigens, without loss of their biological activity during the formulation process. Also, multiple antigens,
targeting ligands and adjuvants can all be encapsulated within in the same particle. When administered orally, these particles
are designed to withstand the acidic environment of the stomach and are targeted to the Peyer?s patches and the gut associated
mucosal immune system. Since these vaccines are particulate in nature, they are readily taken up by phagocytic antigen
presenting cells (APC?s), such as M cells, dendritic cells and macrophages in the Peyer?s patches of the intestines, resulting
in a strong immune response and antibody production. Of particular interest in this formulation is the fact that the particles
release the antigen in a slow and sustained manner over a prolonged time period, intracellularly into APC?s, resulting in strong
mucosal and systemic immunity after oral administration, without the need for added adjuvants that are typically present in
current vaccine preparations. Since no needles are required, for oral vaccines, this method of vaccine delivery is inexpensive
and suitable for mass vaccination in the developing world as well as for the developed world. This presentation discusses
studies conducted on a wide array of vaccines including infectious disease vaccines such as TB, typhoid, influenza, pneumonia,
meningitis and hepatitis B vaccine antigens suggest that this delivery system is highly suitable for antigens to be used for
protective immunity. This method of vaccine delivery enables the delivery of a wide spectrum of vaccines for prophylactic and
Martin J D?Souza has completed his PhD from the University of Pittsburgh, PA. He is the director of Graduate Programs at Mercer University, College of Pharmacy
and Co-Director of the Center for Drug Delivery. He has published more than 80 manuscripts and is on the editorial board of several journals.
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