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Introduction: Many drugs and therapies have been developed for treating viral infections, HIV/AIDS, cancer but with little
success or adverse and toxic effects on the organisms. Scientists have found a mechanism which might help us fight with these,
Interluekin 33: IL-33 is a cytokine belonging to the IL-1 superfamily. IL-33 induces helper T cells, mast cells, eosinophils and
basophils to produce type 2 cytokines. This cytokine was previously named NF-HEV ?nuclear factor (NF) in high endothelial
venules? (HEVs) since it was originally identified in these specialized cells. IL-33 mediates its biological effects by interacting with the receptors ST2 (aka IL1RL1) and IL-1 Receptor Accessory Protein (IL1RAP), activating intracellular molecules in the NF-κB
and MAP kinase signaling pathways that drive production of type 2 cytokines (e.g. IL-5 and IL-13) from polarized Th2 cells. The
induction of type 2 cytokines by IL-33 in vivo is believed to induce the severe pathological changes observed in mucosal organs
following administration of IL-33.
Experiment: Scientist have exploited the mechanism of vaccination and found that when a foreign or viral particle enters our
body which are regarded as PAMP?s, these cells alert the dendritic cells and there by alert T-cells but the new mechanism found,
relates the activity of dendritic cells with the injured cells which give out alarmins(factor) responsible for stimulating T-cells i.e.,
Interluekin 33(IL-33).It forms scaffold for T-cells and improves their activity and thus T-cells destroy the foreign or cancerous
cells. It was found when a mouse was knocked out of the gene responsible for IL33 it could not sustain the viral attacks Conversely,
IL-33 could be used to artificially increase the T killer cell army, which was generated in response to vaccination.
Result: The ?foreign look? of viruses (PAMPs) activates the ?dendritic cell? policemen to engage T killer cells. T killer cells,
however, remain lousy fighters unless alerted by a cell death in their neighborhood. These new findings could provide a key to
effective vaccination against infectious diseases and cancer.
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