Journal of Biotechnology & Biomaterials
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The Microbial Enzymes with identical substrate profile produced by different microorganisms vary significantly in the optimal
conditions for their reactions like temperature, pH, substrate concentration etc. This gives flexibility in their utilities. Soil is
the most complicated biomaterial on the planet and it is the natural source for microorganisms and is a natural laboratory to do
experiments. The soil, which arises from the weathering of parent rock materials, is by definition capable of acting as a habitat for
microorganisms. Microbially most active soil is the upper 16 ?cm -17.2 cm-thick plow layer .As with any material, the physical
habitat is of prime importance in determining and regulating biological activity. However, until recently the opaque nature of
soil has meant that any interrogation of its interior architecture has been relatively rudimentary, restricted to simple qualitative
expressions of the physical heterogeneity that fail to relate to any specific function. However, new techniques and insights into
the biophysical and biochemical processes of this inner space are leading to the developments of theoretical frameworks and
experimental approaches that will allow us to sustainably manage Earth's most important resource. We introduce the concept that
the soil-microbe system is self-organized and suggest new priorities for research based on an integrative approach that combines
biochemistry and biophysics and acts as a source for soil enzymes. Microbial exploitation for the production of soil enzymes is
highly attractive for applications in fruit, detergent, textile, tanning, meat and paper industries and also in waste water treatment.
Plant and animal tissues contain potentially harmful products including large amounts of enzyme inhibitors, whereas
microbial enzymes are usually free from these problems. Microorganisms are highly susceptible to genetic manipulations and
hence provide ample scope for strain improvement. In our study, we have screened Pectin lyase producing Actinomycetes or
Actinobacteria from fruit industrial waste enriched soil samples collected from Chittoor and Vellore. Many industrially enzymes
needs presence of certain inducible and non protein substrates. In the case of pectinase even though it is a cock tail enzyme
but it needs same substrate i.e. Water soluble colloidal high molecular weight carbohydrate normally present in ripened fruits
i.e. pectin. Its estimation in some fruits and vegetables indicates the range of 0.6-30.mg/ml and the cheapest source for pectin
substrate. Microbial pectinases find application in food industry and account for ~25% of global food enzymes. Nearly 75% of
estimated sale value of industrial enzymes in 1995 has been contributed by pectinases. Indeed, a quarter of today?s world market
in pectinase, is supplied by Biocon. India. In its latest fiscal year, it reported net profits of about $8m on sales of $52m.100m of
Pectinase (Pectinex) (National Centre for Biotechnology Education-2008) costs around ?14.00. The cocktail pectinases producing
Actinomycetes specifically pectin lyase
were screened from fruit industrial waste soils collected from Vellore and Chittoor.
Chittoor and Vellore city lies on the banks of Ponnai River at the southernmost part of Tamil Nadu and Andhra Pradesh.
The Chittoor district (Area 15,359 km?, population 2,267,769-1991 census) is bounded by Ananthapur district to the
northwest, Cuddapah district to the north, Nellore District to the northeast, Vellore (Katpadi) & Tiruvallur districts of Tamilnadu
state to the south, and Karnataka state to the southwest. The city is strategically located at the junction of Bangalore-Chennai
national highway 4 and national highway 18.Where so many Fruit Industries are working for the last 20 years and the soils are
highly enriched with pectin this is a added advantage to screen potential Pectinase producing Actinomycetes which paved the
pathway for development of Indigenous pectinase Technology. The screening, Characterization and Bioinformatics analysis of
Microbial Pectinases will be discussed.
Suneetha Vuppu has completed her Ph.D from SPMVV and postdoctoral studies and collaborations from UK and Singapore. She is the YRC
Programme officer a premier VIT organization. She has published more than 25 papers in reputed journals and serving as an editorial board
member of repute and presently working as Associate Professor in VIT University.
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