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Background: Malaria remains the most important parasitic disease afflicting about 2.2 billion people globally. Most malaria deaths are due to Plasmodium falciparum infection. P. f is an intra erythrocytic protozoan parasite. It exports antigens and imports extra cellular nutrients to survive. Serum albumin and its associated fatty acids are essential for intra erythrocytic development and cell cycle progression of the P. falciparum. A change in serum glucose level & protein level is a characteristic feature of much parasitic infection.
Materials and Methods: 12 week old C57BL/6J mice were divided into 6 batches each with 6 mice. These experimental groups were Control (Batch-1), Infected (Batch-2), Infected+Arteether treated (Batch-3), Infected+Artesunate treated (Batch-4),
Arteether Prophylactic (Batch-5) and Artesunate Prophylactic mice (Batch-6). Serum Glucose levels were determined by Ortho-toluidine method (Mono-step). Serum proteins levels were determined by Biuret and BCG (Bromo Cresol Green) Dye Binding method. Statistical analysis such as Mean, Standard Deviation (SD), Standard Error of Mean (SEM) and Paired T-Test were
performed with ?MINITAB 11. 1232 Bit?. For between group comparisons ?Two Sample T-Test? was performed. Differences were considered statistically significant at p<0.05 and p<0.001.
Results and Discussion: In the present investigation glucose levels were significantly decreased (p<0.001) causing hypoglycemia
at high rate of parasitemia in P. f infected mice. At high rate of parasitaemia malaria parasite utilizes glucose for theirs own
energy requirement. And malaria fever and infections increase the metabolic demand of the body hence more glucose is utilized.
When these infected mice treated with Arteether/Artesunate the glucose levels were increased significantly (p<0.001) to normal
level. In mice treated with Arteether/ Artesunate prophylaxis the blood glucose levels were significantly high (P<0.001) when
compared with infected mice, but these levels were in normal as in control group. And also low serum total protein concentration
was observed in this study may be due to reduced concentration of albumin i.e., hypoalbuminea. Hence the serum proteins, serum albumin levels were found to be significantly lower (p<0.05) compared to control group. Total globulins have increased significantly (p<0.05) due to P. f infection. When the P. f infected mice treated with Arteether/ Artesunate and during prophylactic treatment; total serum proteins, total albumin and total globulin levels restored to normal values. Also the finding suggested that
the level of total globulins is influenced by the degree of parasitemia. It is said that the high levels of globulins are due to acute or
chronic infection of P. falciparum.
Conclusion: By evaluating the above parameters in treated mice; Artesunate and Arteether have proven as still efficient drugs to
human malaria, Plasmodium falciparum when compared with other existing drugs in spite of increasing drug resistance.
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