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Research on stem cells is advancing knowledge about how an organism develops from a single cell and how healthy cells develop
in adult organisms. This promising area of science is also leading scientist to investigate the possibility of cell based therapies
to treat disease, which is often to a regenerative medicine. Stem cells are one of the most fascinating areas of biology today. But like
many expanding field of scientific inquiry, research on stem cells raises scientific questions as rapidly as it generates new discoveries.
The major sources of stem cells are embryonic and adult stem cells. Embryonic stem cells, as their name suggests, are derived from
embryos and the sources of adult stem cells are umbilical cord, menstrual blood, muscle, tendons, adipose tissue, bone marrow etc.
Mesenchymal stem cells (MSC) or mesenchymal progenitor cells can be ex vivo expanded and induced, either in vitro or in vivo,
terminally differentiate into osteoblasts, chondrocytes, adipocytes, tenocytes, myotubes, neural cells and hematopoietic ? supporting
stroma. The multi-potential of these cells, their easy isolation and culture, as well as their high ex vivo expansive potential makes
these cells an attractive therapeutic tool. As they are multipotent, they are applied as a promising tool in regenerative medicine and
new clinical concepts in supporting cellular theraphy. This leads to the purpose to find an alternative source of Mesenchymal Stem
Cells as collection of MSC from bone marrow involves an invasive, painful procedure and low amount of functional, viable MSCs
are isolated from the Human Umbilical Cord Blood and thus we are isolating the Adult Mesenchymal Stem Cells from Umblical
Cord ant the isolated stem cells are cultured in vitro in culture medium. The isolated stem cells are cryopreserved in liquid Nitrogen
vapour which can be retrieved for future studies. The isolated Mesenchymal Stem Cells can be characterized morphologically and
also by Flow Cytometry using surface markers like CD90, CD105, CD31, CD34 and the viability is also checked using Tryphan
blue. Control assay is performed to detect the presence of Mycoplasma and inorder to avoid the non specific binding of antigen to
the antibody, the isotype controls were used in the form of immunoglobulin flourochrome moieties (IgG
?FITC and IgG1-PE). In
this study, the isolated cells showed the typical characteristics of mesenchymal stem cells derived from umbilical cord. They were
spindle shaped in nature and formed colonies in the primary culture and they resulted positive for CD90 and CD105 markers and
negative for markers CD34 and CD31. Thus the isolated Mesenchymal Stem Cells are used for further studies such as differentiation,
population doubling, karyotyping, animal studies for clinical trials and make it all the way viable for its use in transplantation
procedures for curing the dreadful diseases.
R. Sangeetha is pursuing her undergraduate in Bachelor of Biotechnology (IVth year) at Rajalakshmi Engineering College affliated to Anna
University, Chennai, India. She performed many Paper and Poster Presentations in several National Conferences. She have underwent training in
Bioinformatics tools, learnt several techniques related to molecular biology field, Chromatography Techniques (Protein Purification Techniques) and
Animal Handling. She had a chance of understanding the techniques & methodologies followed in Pharmaceutical industries. She did piece of work
on toxicogenomics & Stem Cells of her guide, M. Subash Chandra Bose.
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