Australia was firstly discovered by a Dutch explorer who named it New Holland. Australia is the smallest continent in the world. It is also the 6th largest country in the world, after Russia, Canada, China, USA, and Brazil. In 1901, the Constitution of the Commonwealth of Australia was started. The parliament was established as a federation of six states and two territories.In Australia, the main language is English and the official currency is the Australian dollar (AU$). Australia has the longest fence in the world. The fence is called the ‘Dingo Fence’ and is 5,531 kilometres long. In Western Australia, they have the longest straight road in the world of 148 kilometres long.
Australia is an island with most of its population living around its coastline. Australia is an island with most of its population living around its coastline. The coastline has many beaches and reefs that are popular with surfers and divers such as the Great Barrier Reef, Bondi Beach and Surfers Paradise. The centre of Australia is mostly desert with very little water. The famous Ayres Rock or Uluru is found here and is a popular tourist attraction. The highest mountain, Mount Kosciusko is a great place.
Australia focus on public research; publicly funded research agencies focus on applied research; and the private sector focuses on implementation. - Australia’s higher education sector. Publicly funded research agencies (CSIRO, oncology, Defence Science and Technology Organisation, Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organisation, Australian Institute of Marine Science, Australian Institute of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Studies, Geoscience Australia, Australian Antarctic Division etc. However R&D has increased by 51 per cent in recent years and is now greater than that of larger countries such as Canada and the United Kingdom, and of smaller countries such as Belgium, Norway and Ireland.
In physiology, medicine ,chemistry and economics Australia has many noble laureates. There have been fifteen Australian winners of the Nobel Prize. The majority of these prizes (eight) have been awarded in the field of Physiology or Medicine, and include the second youngest ever laureate (William Lawrence Bragg, who was awarded the prize at 25 years of age).Over $1.7 billion in funding was provided to cancer research between 2006 and 2011. The Australian Government was the largest funder, providing more than $1 billion (58%).91% of all grants and awards to support cancer research capacity were funded by a single funding source. Career funding for cancer researchers totalled $304 million, and annual funding almost doubled from 2006 to 2011.