China, officially the People's Republic of China (PRC), is the world's most populous state, with a population of over 1.381 billion. China is a cradle of civilization, with its known history beginning with an ancient civilization – one of the world's earliest – that flourished in the fertile basin of the Yellow River in the North China Plain.
China is the world's second largest state by land area. China's landscape is vast and diverse, ranging from forest steppes and the Gobi and Taklamakan deserts in the arid north to subtropical forests in the wetter south. The Himalaya, Karakoram, Pamir and Tian Shan mountain ranges separate China from South and Central Asia. The Yangtze and Yellow Rivers, the third- and sixth-longest in the world, run from the Tibetan Plateau to the densely populated eastern seaboard. China's coastline along the Pacific Ocean is 14,500 kilometres (9,000 mi) long, and is bounded by the Bohai, Yellow, East and South China Seas.
China had the largest economy in the world for most of the past two thousand years, during which it has seen cycles of prosperity and decline. Since the introduction of economic reforms in 1978, China has become one of the world's fastest-growing major economies. As of 2014, it is the world's second-largest economy by nominal total GDP and largest by purchasing power parity (PPP). China is also the world's largest exporter and second-largest importer of goods. China is a recognized nuclear weapons state and has the world's largest standing army and second-largest defence budget.
In physiology or medicine, chemistry china has excelled producing the Noble Laureates. China is the most populous country in the world, and the largest low- to middle-income country. Annual mortality from cancer is 167.6 per 100 000 population, which accounts for a quarter of all cancer deaths worldwide.
In absolute terms, there are 2.82 million new cases of cancer diagnosed each year, and 1.96 million deaths. The all-cancer mortality-to-incidence ratio in China is 0.62; the ratio is 0.59 in South America, 0.43 in the European Union, and 0.35 in the United States. Economic growth has benefited China and has led to an ongoing transition from an agricultural to industrialized nation. But economic development has brought with it many of the scourges of modernization, including sedentary lifestyles, increasingly Westernized dietary habits, and increasing smoking rates, alcohol consumption, and environmental pollution. The aging population and geographic and socioeconomic disparities have affected the cancer burden in China.