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Spain, officially the Kingdom of Spain is a sovereign state largely located on the Iberian Peninsula in southwestern Europe, with archipelagos in the Atlantic Ocean and Mediterranean Sea, and several small territories on and near the North African coast. Its mainland is bordered to the south and east by the Mediterranean Sea except for a small land boundary with Gibraltar; to the north and northeast by France, Andorra, and the Bay of Biscay; and to the west and northwest by Portugal and the Atlantic Ocean. Along with France and Morocco, it is one of only three countries to have both Atlantic and Mediterranean coastlines. Extending to 1,214 km, the Portugal–Spain border is the longest uninterrupted border within the European Union.
At 505,992 km2, Spain is the world's fifty-second largest country and Europe's fourth largest country. It is some 47,000 km2 smaller than France and 81,000 km2 larger than the US state of California. Mount Teide is the highest mountain peak in Spain and is the third largest volcano in the world from its base.
In the 19th and 20th centuries science in Spain was held back by severe political instability and consequent economic underdevelopment. Despite the conditions, some important scientists and engineers emerged. Cancer research is constantly advancing. Evidence-based medicine transfers the results of that research into new standards and methods for clinical practice. There are many lists of oncological journals which emphasize in the field of oncology and Spain is one of the countries which maintain oncological journals in regular frequency.