Turkey, officially the Republic of Turkey is a parliamentary republic in Eurasia, largely located in Western Asia, with the smaller portion of Eastern Thrace in Southeast Europe. Turkey is bordered by eight countries: Syria and Iraq to the south; Iran, Armenia, and the Azerbaijani exclave of Nakhchivan to the east; Georgia to the northeast; Bulgaria to the northwest; and Greece to the west. The Black Sea is to the north, the Mediterranean Sea to the south, and the Aegean Sea to the west. The Bosphorus, the Sea of Marmara, and the Dardanelles demarcate the boundary between Thrace and Anatolia; they also separate Europe and Asia. Turkey's location at the crossroads of Europe and Asia makes it a country of significant geostrategic importance.
Turkey is a transcontinental Eurasian country. Asian Turkey, which includes 97 percent of the country, is separated from European Turkey by the Bosphorus, the Sea of Marmara, and the Dardanelles. European Turkey comprises 3 percent of the country. The territory of Turkey is more than 1,600 kilometres long and 800 kilometres wide, with a roughly rectangular shape. It lies between latitudes 35° and 43° N, and longitudes 25° and 45° E. Turkey's land area, including lakes, occupies 783,562 square kilometres, of which 755,688 square kilometres are in Southwest Asia and 23,764 square kilometres in Europe. Turkey is the world's 37th-largest country in terms of area. The country is encircled by seas on three sides: the Aegean Sea to the west, the Black Sea to the north and the Mediterranean to the south. Turkey also contains the Sea of Marmara in the northwest.
TÜB?TAK is the leading agency for developing science, technology and innovation policies in Turkey. TÜBA is an autonomous scholarly society acting to promote scientific activities in Turkey. TAEK is the official nuclear energy institution of Turkey. Its objectives include academic research in nuclear energy, and the development and implementation of peaceful nuclear tools. In 2015, Aziz Sancar, a Turkish professor at the University of North Carolina, won Nobel Chemistry Prize along with Tomas Lindahl and Paul Modrich, with their work on how cells repair damaged DNA. The application for foundation of Medical Oncology Society has been done in 5.8.1996 in Istanbul, by seven founding members. Together with the acceptance of the regulations which have been formed in accordance with these purposes, its foundation has been completed officially in 15.3.1997. All of thirty medical oncologists in Turkey have become members of the society during the foundation. During this period the Medical Oncology Society has organized several courses, provided projects and support for foreign education and have been among the organizers of the National Cancer Congress which has been organized in 2001. There are many lists of oncological journals which emphasize in the field of oncology and Turkey is one of the countries which maintain oncological journals in regular frequency. There have been numerous lists of oncological journals in Turkey such as Turkish Journal of oncology and many other Turkey oncological journals which are running with good number of articles and good reputation.