alexa Role of Regulatory T-cells in Oral Tolerance and Immunotherapy
ISSN: 2168-9652

Biochemistry & Physiology: Open Access
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Review Article

Role of Regulatory T-cells in Oral Tolerance and Immunotherapy

Mark Farrugia and Byron Baron*
Centre for Molecular Medicine and Biobanking, Faculty of Medicine and Surgery, University of Malta, Msida, MSD2080, Malta
*Corresponding Author : Byron Baron
Centre for Molecular Medicine and Biobanking
Faculty of Medicine and Surgery, University of Malta
Msida, MSD2080, Malta
Tel: 00356 21639913
E-mail: [email protected]
Received: January 28, 2016;Accepted: February 09, 2016; Published: February 16, 2016
Citation: Farrugia M, Baron B (2016) Role of Regulatory T-cells in Oral Tolerance and Immunotherapy. Biochem Physiol 5:199. doi: 10.4172/2168-9652.1000199
Copyright: © 2016 Farrugia M, et al. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.
 

Abstract

Food allergies encompass a range of disorders ranging from being an inconvenience to even causing fatalities, mainly due to anaphylaxis. A large number of individuals are affected and this presents great health and economic implications. However as yet, apart from dietary avoidance, effective treatment strategies are practically non-existent. The immune environment related to allergen-tolerance is highly complex and the role of regulatory T-cells in allergenspecific tolerance, their interaction with other cells in inflamed tissues, and their role in antibody regulation have been demonstrated in several studies. Regulatory T-cells are able to control acquired immunity and achieve oral tolerance to food allergens. Immunotherapy for food allergies focuses on desensitisation by increasing the allergen reactivity threshold. So far, the only long-term curative treatment used effectively is allergen-specific immunotherapy which involves the administration of increasing doses of the causative allergen, such that a state of allergen-specific immune tolerance is induced over the course of the treatment. This review covers various forms of allergen-specific immunotherapy, focusing on the role of regulatory T-cells in such therapies, and includes a number of small studies providing ideas for future work in the area.

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