Risk Factors for Hepatocellular Carcinoma and Its Mortality Rate: A Multicenter Study in Indonesia*Corresponding Author:
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Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is the second leading cause of cancer death worldwide. It is the most common primary liver cancer with very poor prognosis and outcome. The incidence is much higher in men and stands as third most common cancer among men and seventh in women. Eastern and South-Eastern Asia have the highest incidence with the age-standardized ratio (ASR) of 31.9 and 22.2 per 100.000 respectively. A study in Indonesia by Mulyana investigated that HCC patients’ survival in Cipto Mangunkusumo National General Hospital was very low with only 4.8 months of median survival and 24.1% one-year survival rate. After fifteen years, a recent study in Indonesia showed no improvement in the survival of HCC patients with 29.4% one- year survival rate.
Hepatitis B virus (HBV) and hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection are the primary cause of HCC, while hepatitis B is more common in Asia and developing countries Moreover, the endemicity of hepatitis B in Indonesia is intermediate to high and varied between region ranging from 4.7 to 11.2%