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Long-term Effects Of Residential Rainfall Levels On Post Heavy-rainfall Waterborne Disease Hospitalizations In Young Children In New Zealand | 107326
Journal of Earth Science & Climatic Change
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Climate change models have recently projected increased heavy rainfall events in both wet and dry regions. It
is well established that heavy rainfall events are associated with increased risks of waterborne diseases (WD).
However, there is a paucity of epidemiological evidence for how wet and dry regions influence the risk of WD due to
heavy rainfall. In New Zealand, the annual total rainfall can differ by up to 3500mm in different locations. We aimed
to determine if residing in wet or dry regions was associated with the risk of experiencing WD immediately following
heavy rainfall. Using our cohort of 6853 children born between 2009 and mid-2010 in New Zealand, we defined
possible WD hospitalization if the primary and/or secondary causes were intestinal infections (ICD10:A00-09),
non-intestinal E. coli infections (B96.2), leptospirosis (A27), mycobacterial infections (A31), adenovirus (B97.0),
enterovirus (B97.1), and/or unspecified-site viral infections (B34). We only considered admissions within a lag
window of 1-4 days after the heavy rainfall dates to ensure short-term temporality. To define wet or dry regions,
we assessed time-weighted long-term exposure using median annual rainfall levels at individual home locations
at five different data collection time points. We used logistic regression model adjusted for child???s sex, ethnicity,
rurality and individual deprivation.Based on the third quintile of residential long-term rainfall level, the adjusted
odds ratios [95%CI] of post heavy-rainfall WD hospitalizations in the dry (first, second) and wet regions (fourth and
fifth quintiles) were 1.84 [1.08-3.14], 1.23 [0.70-2.17], 1.35 [0.77-2.37] and 2.24 [1.25-4.01] respectively. A U-shape
exposure-response relationship was found (quadratic trend P-value = 0.002). Living in the wettest and driest rainfall
locations were both associated with childhood WD hospitalizations shortly after heavy rainfall dates. We suggest a
need to review preventive policy to address the rainfall-associated WD risks among residents in vulnerable locations.
1. Lai, H. K., Camargo, C. A., Woodward, A., Hobbs, M., Pillai, A., Morton, S. M., Grant, C. C. (2019). Longterm
exposure to neighborhood smoke from household heating and risk of respiratory and dermatological
prescription medications - Growing Up in New Zealand child cohort study. Allergy 74:391-395.
2. Morton, S. M., Lai, H. K. (2018). Growing Up in New Zealand: Health research project ??? Drinking water quality
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Emergency department visits of young children and long-term exposure to neighbourhood smoke from
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Before starting post-doc research in environmental health in Hong Kong, Dr Hakkan Lai obtained a PhD in environmental exposure and modelling (UK, 2005). In 2014 he moved to New Zealand, and in 2015 he joined the University of Auckland School of Population Health, initially in the Section of Epidemiology and Biostatistics for a study related to biodiversity, green space and active transport. In 2016, Hakkan joined the Growing Up in New Zealand (GUiNZ) cohort study. Hakkan’s research focuses on spatial and temporal distribution of environmental exposures and various health outcomes including diseases of cardiovascular, respiratory, gastrointestinal, dermatological and oncological outcomes
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