Journal of Earth Science & Climatic Change
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he nested approach within the REDD+ mechanism, guided by a REDD+ agency, will help to reduce emissions from
deforestation and forest degradation and enhancement of forest carbon stocks in low-middle income countries such as
Guatemala. For this research, three potential scenarios for REDD+ are proposed and investigated: (a) dream scenario in which an
independent body (nested within a national and local level approach and an international framework) will implement the REDD+
strategy, having responsibility for monitoring, reporting and verifying (MRV), channelling international funding, and overseeing
the operation of social and environmental safeguards; (b) a reality scenario in which the government has the overall responsibility
(national approach) but independent projects (at the local level) are undertaken in line with international expectations; in this
scenario, the weakness of the political administration could pose a threat to effective REDD+ implementation (weak MRV) social
and environmental issues may not be adequately taken into consideration; and, (c) a nightmare scenario in which a weak and
ineffective national or subnational approach is likely to have adverse social and environmental effects. In this scenario, the biggest
threat is the conversion of native forests into fast growing forest plantation, benefitting mainly the private sector.
Maria Jose Iturbide is a Ph.D. Environmental Policy and Planning student from Lincoln University, New Zealand; and she is in her last year of
research. She has a master?s degree in Environmental Sciences from Universidad Del Vall de Guatemala, which is her hometown. She has more
than 15 years of working experience mostly in the government sector where she has implemented several environmental policy and planning
projects. She has also worked as an international consultant for International agencies like: Jica, GIZ, Dutch Agency and others.
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