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Zeng Mingtao, PhD
Center of Excellence in Infectious Diseases
Texas Tech University Health Sciences Center
Bioterrorism is the use of biological warfare agents which harms mankind. Biodefense involves medical measures to protect against biological agents. Journal of Bioterrorism & Biodefense under Open Access category aims to advance our understanding of the harmful effects of the bioterrorism and approaches for biodefense of potentially harmful agents. Journal of Bioterrorism & Biodefense is a scientific journal which provides an opportunity to share the information among the medical scientists and researchers.
Journal of Bioterrorism & Biodefense is one of the best Open Access journals of scholarly publishing. The journal includes a wide range of fields in its discipline which broadly covers Biodefense, Emergency preparedness, Infectious diseases, Bio-Threat Agents, Bio-Crimes, Bio-Surveillance and Global Surveillance etc. to create a platform for the authors to make their contribution towards the journal and the editorial office promises a peer review process for the submitted manuscripts for the quality of publishing.
Journal of Bioterrorism & Biodefense is a academic journal and aims to publish most complete and reliable source of information on the discoveries and current developments in the mode of original articles, review articles, case reports, short communications, etc. in all areas of the field and making them freely available through online without any restrictions or any other subscriptions to researchers worldwide.
Submit manuscript at Online Manuscript submission System https://www.scholarscentral.org/submissions/bioterrorism-biodefense.html or send as an e-mail attachment to the Editorial Office at [email protected]
Bio surveillance is a process of gathering, integrating, interpreting, and communicating essential information that might relate to disease activity and threats to human, animal, or plant health. For the public health professional, bio surveillance activities range from standard epidemiological practices to advanced technological systems, utilizing complex algorithms. It is important for local health officials to have a heightened awareness of bio surveillance programs at the federal, state, and local levels.
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Biodefense Journal, Biodefense and Bioterrorism, Biosecurity and Bioterrorism, Biodefense research, Biodefense articles, Biodefense research articles,Expert Opinion on Environmental Biology, Biodiversity Management & Forestry, Biosafety, Bio Discovery, Food Additives and Contaminants: Part B Surveillance, Surveillance & Society, New Zealand Public Health Surveillance Report, MMWR, Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report Surveillance Summaries / CDCeillance ,biology and medicine.
Bioterrorism is terrorism involving the intentional release or dissemination of biological agents like bacteria, viruses, or toxins, and may be in a naturally occurring or a human-modified form. Biological agents spread through the air, water, or in food. Some can also spread from person to person and very hard to detect. Anthrax, botulism, Ebola and other haemorrhagic fever viruses, plague, or smallpox could be used as biological agents. Biodefense uses medical measures to protect people against bioterrorism, includes medicines and vaccinations. It also includes medical research and preparations to defend against bioterrorist attacks
Related Journals of Bioterrorism
Bioterrorism & Biodefense, Biosecurity and Bioterrorism, Archives of Clinical Microbiology, Clinical Microbiology, International Journal of Public Health and Safety, Biodefense Journal, Biodefense research, Biodefense articles, Biodefense research articles
A biological agent also called bio-agent, biological threat agent, biological warfare agent, biological weapon, or bioweapon is a bacterium, virus, protozoan, parasite, or fungus that can be used purposefully as a weapon in bioterrorism or biological warfare (BW). In addition to these living and/or replicating pathogens, biological toxins are also included among the bio-agents. Biological agents have the ability to adversely affect human health in a variety of ways, ranging from relatively mild allergic reactions to serious medical conditions, including death. Many of these organisms are ubiquitous in the natural environment where they are found in water, soil, plants, or animals. Bio-agents may be amenable to "weaponization" to render them easier to deploy or disseminate. Genetic modification may enhance their incapacitating or lethal properties, or render them impervious to conventional treatments or preventives.
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Biodefense Journal, Biodefefnse and Bioterrorism, Biosecurity and Bioterrorism, Biodefense research, Biodefense articles, Biodefense research articles, Electronic Journal of Biology, Biology and Medicine, Computer Science & Systems Biology Open, Food: Microbiology, Safety & Hygiene, Plant Pathology & Microbiology
Biosecurity has multiple meanings and is defined differently according to various disciplines. The original definition of biosecurity started out as a set of preventive measures designed to reduce the risk of transmission of infectious diseases in crops and livestock, quarantined pests, invasive alien species, and living modified organisms. The National Academies of Science define biosecurity as "security against the inadvertent, inappropriate, or intentional malicious or malevolent use of potentially dangerous biological agents or biotechnology, including the development, production, stockpiling, or use of biological weapons as well as outbreaks of newly emergent and epidemic disease".
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Biological hazards, also known as biohazards, refer to biological substances that pose a threat to the health of living organisms, primarily that of humans. This can include medical waste or samples of a microorganism, virus or toxin (from a biological source) that can affect human health. It can also include substances harmful to other animals.
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Biodefense Journal, Biodefense and Bioterrorism, Biosecurity and Bioterrorism, Biodefense research, Biodefense articles, Biodefense research articles, Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology, Medical Microbiology & Diagnosis, Interdisciplinary Journal of Micro inflammation, Applied Microbiology, Environmental Hazards Geometrics, Natural Hazards and Risk, Natural Hazards and Earth System Science
A biological attack, or bioterrorism, is the intentional release of viruses, bacteria, or other germs that can sicken or kill people, livestock, or crops. Bacillus anthracis, the bacteria that causes anthrax, is one of the most likely agents to be used in a biological attack.
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Biological warfare (BW) also known as germ warfare is the use of biological toxins or infectious agents such as bacteria, viruses, and fungi with the intent to kill or incapacitate humans, animals or plants as an act of war. Biological weapons (often termed "bio-weapons", "biological threat agents", or "bio-agents") are living organisms or replicating entities (viruses, which are not universally considered "alive") that reproduce or replicate within their host victims. Entomological (insect) warfare is also considered a type of biological weapon. This type of warfare is distinct from nuclear warfare and chemical warfare, which together with biological warfare make up NBC, the military acronym for nuclear, biological, and chemical warfare using weapons of mass destruction (WMDs). None of these are conventional weapons, which are primarily effective due to their explosive, kinetic, or incendiary potential.
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Bioterrorism agents are living organisms, such as bacteria, viruses, or fungi, or toxins that are deliberately used to sicken and kill. They may be used by terrorists partially because of their psychological impact on the public and partially because they can be deadly, are easy to distribute, are a relatively inexpensive weapon, and are difficult to detect. Bioterrorism agents have been used in acts of warfare for thousands of years. This has included dipping arrows into toxins, poisoning food and water supplies, and deliberately spreading deadly infections. Bioterrorism agents can be carried in food products, dispersed into the air or drinking water, introduced into crops and livestock.
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Biodefense refers to short term, local, usually military measures to restore biosecurity to a given group of persons in a given area who are, or may be, subject to biological warfare— in the civilian terminology, it is a very robust biohazard response. It is technically possible to apply biodefense measures to protect animals or plants, but this is generally uneconomic. However, protection of water supplies and food supplies are often a critical part of biodefense. Various definitions of biosafety emerged in different professions to guarantee non-human health. Biodefense is most often discussed in the context of biowar or bioterrorism, and is generally considered a military or emergency response term. Biodefense applies to two distinct target populations: civilian non-combatant and military combatant (troops in the field).
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A vaccine is a biological preparation that provides active acquired immunity to a particular disease. A vaccine typically contains an agent that resembles a disease-causing microorganism and is often made from weakened or killed forms of the microbe, its toxins or one of its surface proteins. The agent stimulates the body's immune system to recognize the agent as a threat, destroy it, and keep a record of it, so that the immune system can more easily recognize and destroy any of these microorganisms that it later encounters.
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Nuclear terrorism denotes the detonation of a yield-producing nuclear bomb containing fissile material by terrorists. Some definitions of nuclear terrorism include the sabotage of a nuclear facility and/or the detonation of a radiological device, colloquially termed a dirty bomb but consensus is lacking. In legal terms, nuclear terrorism is an offense committed if a person unlawfully and intentionally “uses in any way radioactive material with the intent to cause death or serious bodily injury; or with the intent to cause substantial damage to property or to the environment.
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Information security, sometimes shortened to InfoSec, is the practice of defending information from unauthorized access, use, disclosure, disruption, modification, perusal, inspection, recording or destruction. It is a general term that can be used regardless of the form the data may take (e.g. electronic, physical). Sometimes referred to as computer security, Information Technology security is information security applied to technology. It is worthwhile to note that a computer does not necessarily mean a home desktop. A computer is any device with a processor and some memory. Such devices can range from non-networked standalone devices as simple as calculators, to networked mobile computing devices such as smartphones and tablet computers. IT security specialists are almost always found in any major enterprise/establishment due to the nature and value of the data within larger businesses. They are responsible for keeping all of the technology within the company secure from malicious cyber attacks that often attempt to breach into critical private information or gain control of the internal systems.
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Breast cancer is the most common invasive cancer in women. The most common form of cancer is non-invasive non-melanoma skin cancer, non-invasive cancers are generally easily cured, cause very few deaths, and are routinely excluded from cancer statistics. Breast cancer is strongly related to age, with only 5% of all breast cancers occurring in women under 40 years old.
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Biological weapons (BWs) deliver toxins and microorganisms, such as viruses and bacteria, so as to deliberately inflict disease among people, animals, and agriculture. Biological attacks can result in destruction of crops, temporarily discomforting a small community, killing large numbers of people, or other outcomes.The way that a biological weapon is used depends on several factors. These include: the agent itself; its preparation; its durability in the environment; and route of infection. Some agents can be disbursed as an aerosol, which can be inhaled or can infect a susceptible spot on the skin, like a cut or wound. Attackers can also contaminate food or water with some agents.
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Probabilistic risk assessment (PRA) is a systematic and comprehensive methodology to evaluate risks associated with a complex engineered technological entity (such as an airliner or a nuclear power plant).Risk in a PRA is defined as a feasible detrimental outcome of an activity or action. In a PRA, risk is characterized by two quantities,the magnitude (severity) of the possible adverse consequence(s), and the likelihood (probability) of occurrence of each consequence. Consequences are expressed numerically (e.g., the number of people potentially hurt or killed) and their likelihoods of occurrence are expressed as probabilities or frequencies (i.e., the number of occurrences or the probability of occurrence per unit time). The total risk is the expected loss: the sum of the products of the consequences multiplied by their probabilities.
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An emerging infectious disease (EID) is an infectious disease whose incidence has increased in the past 20 years and could increase in the near future. Emerging infections account for at least 12% of all human pathogens. EIDs are caused by newly identified species or strains (e.g. SARS, AIDS) that may have evolved from a known infection (e.g. influenza) or spread to a new population (e.g. West Nile virus) or area undergoing ecologic transformation (e.g. Lyme disease), or be reemerging infections, like drug resistant tuberculosis. Nosocomial infections, such as MRSA are emerging in hospitals and extremely problematic in that they are resistant to many antibiotics. Of growing concern are adverse synergistic interactions between emerging diseases and other infectious and non-infectious conditions leading to the development of novel syndemics.
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Bio risk refers to the risk associated with biological materials and/or infectious agents. Lately the term is also used within the laboratory setting combining the term biological safety (biosafety) and biosecurity into one word. Bio risk is a DNV-trademarked term in Norway. The term is now gaining increasing recognition amongst regulators, laboratory personnel and industry alike and is used by the WHO. An international Laboratory Bio risk Management Standard developed under the auspices of the European Committee for Standardization defines bio risk as the combination of the probability of occurrence of harm and the severity of that harm where the source of harm is a biological agent or toxin. The source of harm may be an unintentional exposure, accidental release or loss, theft, misuse, diversion, unauthorized access or intentional unauthorized release.
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Biological preparedness is the idea that people and animals are inherently inclined to form associations between certain stimuli and responses. This concept plays an important role in learning, particularly in understanding the classical conditioning process. Some associations form easily because we are predisposed to form such connections, while other associations are much more difficult to form because we are not naturally predisposed to form them.
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Mass Prophylaxis is the capability to protect the health of the population through the administration of critical interventions in response to a public health emergency in order to prevent the development of disease among those who are exposed or are potentially exposed to public health threats. This capability includes the provision of appropriate follow-up and monitoring of adverse events, as well as risk communication messages to address the concerns of the public.
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Disease surveillance is an epidemiological practice by which the spread of disease is monitored in order to establish patterns of progression. The main role of disease surveillance is to predict, observe, and minimize the harm caused by outbreak, epidemic, and pandemic situations, as well as increase knowledge about which factors contribute to such circumstances. A key part of modern disease surveillance is the practice of disease case reporting. In modern times, reporting incidences of disease outbreaks has been transformed from manual record keeping to instant worldwide internet communication. The number of cases could be gathered from hospitals - which would be expected to see most of the occurrences collated, and eventually made public. With the advent of modern communication technology, this has changed dramatically. Organizations like the World Health Organization (WHO) and the Centers for Disease Control now can report cases and deaths from significant diseases within days - sometimes within hours of the occurrence.
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The United States biological defense program in recent years also called the National Biodefense Strategy began as a small defensive effort that paralleled the country's offensive biological weapons development and production program, active between 1943 and 1969. Organizationally, the medical defense research effort was pursued first (1956-1969) by the U.S. Army Medical Unit (USAMU) and later, after the discontinuation of the offensive program, by the U.S. Army Medical Research Institute of Infectious Diseases (USAMRIID). Both of these units were located at Fort Detrick, Maryland, where the U.S. Army Biological Warfare Laboratories were headquartered. The current mission is multi-agency, not exclusively military, and is purely to develop defensive measures against bio-agents, as opposed to the former bio-weapons development program.
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Bioterrorism & Biodefense , Biological Systems , Cell & Developmental Biology , Cellular and Molecular Biology, Cell Biology: Research & Therapy, Phylogenetic & Evolutionary Biology, Biodefense Journal, Biodefense and Bioterrorism, Biosecurity and Bioterrorism, Biodefense research, Biodefense articles, Biodefense research articles
*2020 Journal Impact Factor was established by dividing the number of articles published in 2018 and 2019 with the number of times they are cited in 2020 based on Google Scholar Citation Index database. If 'X' is the total number of articles published in 2018 and 2019, and 'Y' is the number of times these articles were cited in indexed journals during 2020 then, journal impact factor = Y/X
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