alexa Neurological Sequale of Varicella Zoster Virus Infectio
E-ISSN: 2314-7326
P-ISSN: 2314-7334

Journal of Neuroinfectious Diseases
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Case Report

Neurological Sequale of Varicella Zoster Virus Infection

Shamaelah Javed1*, Maheep Singh2, Ramandeep Sahni3, Stephen Marks2, Michael Tenner2, George Kleinman2 and Ahluwalia Singh Brij2
1Department of Neurocritical Care, Detroit Receiving Hospital, Wayne State University, USA
2Westchester Medical Center, USA
3Department of Neurology, New York Medical College, USA
Corresponding Author : Shamaelah Javed
Department of Neurocritical Care
Detroit Receiving Hospital
Wayne State University, USA
Tel: 484-885-9816
E-mail: [email protected]
Received: February 01, 2015 Accepted: June 27, 2015 Published: June 29, 2015
Citation: Javed S, Singh M, Sahni R, Marks S, Tenner M, et al. (2015) Neurological Sequale of Varicella Zoster Virus Infection. J Neuroinfect Dis S1:007. doi:10.4172/2314-7326.S1-007
Copyright: © 2015 Javed S, et al. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.
 

Abstract

Background: Varicella-zoster virus meningoencephalitis is an uncommon complication in immunocompetent adults. Typically, most patients present with neurological symptoms within 7-10 days of onset of rash . Also neurological symptoms preceding the rash or in the absence of the rash are rare. Methods: A 50 year-old female experienced urinary and bowel retention and numbness of heel for three days. She had a painful rash on her right thigh eight weeks earlier. MRI was normal. VZV PCR was positive in the CSF. Her neurological symptoms resolved with Acyclovir. A 23 year-old woman experienced left lower extremity weakness and numbness of right leg and abdomen and urinary retention for one week. She had decreased pin prick in right leg up to T8 level. Serum Hepatitis B and Varicella Zoster virus antibodies were positive. MRI showed restricted diffusion and T2/FLAIR hyperintensity in the pons, mid brain and medial temporal lobe. She was treated with steroids and IVIG. After one month she developed fever, blurry vision and vesicular rash on left forearm. Skin biopsy was positive for Varicella zoster virus antibody. Retinal necrosis was found to be consistent with Varicella zoster virus infection. Patient improved neurologically on Valtrex 1 gm TID. An 84-year-old male had symptoms of severe radicular thoracic pain, urinary and bowel incontinence for one week. MRI of the Thoracolumbar spine showed an intradural, intramedullary enhancing lesion at the T7-T8 level with extensive edema. Autopsy revealed viral encephalomyelitis involving the medulla and multiple foci within the spinal cord with inflammation, necrosis, along with Cowdry viral inclusions consistent with Varicella-zoster virus. Conclusion: The above mentioned cases high light atypical presentation of varicella zoster virus infection.The possibility of varicella zoster virus infection should be considered in patients presenting with un explained myelopathy and restricted diffusion changes, mass lesion or un usual CNS symptoms. Importance: Multiple neurologic complications may follow the reactivation of varicella-zoster virus (VZV), including herpes zoster, vasculopathies, myelitis, retinitis, and zoster sine herpete (pain without rash). Myelitis is one of the rarest neurological complications of vzv infection. Observations: We report three cases of VZV myelitis, two of them were immunocompetent and in two myelitis was associated with concomitant cerebral and brain stem strokes. Conclusions and Relevance: In immunocompetent patient VZV myelitis can manifest in the absence of a rash. Diffusion weighted images on MRI can be normal in the setting of acute myelitis due to VZV infection requiring CSF VZV PCR analysis to make prompt diagnosis and appropriate early treatment can lead to full recovery. Oral treatment for VZV rash does not preclude development of myelitis and may require intravenous antiviral medications to treat the infection subsequently. VZV infection can present as mass lesion of the spinal cord. Concomitant cerebral hemisphere and brain stem ischemic lesions and myelitis can occur due to vzv infection.

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