Apple powdery mildew epidemics, caused by Podosphaera leucotricha (Ell. and Ev.) Salm. can be readily described in terms of
the disease triangle. The role of different environmental factors, viz., temperature, relative humidity, leaf wetness, sunshine and
rainfall were studied in relation to disease development. The present experiment was conducted during the season 2003 to 2005 toHaematological parameters in association with outcomes in sickle cell anaemia patients in
Nnewi, Anambra State, Nigeria
Nnamdi Azikiwe University Teaching Hospital, Nigeria
Sickle cell disease (SCD) has a wide range of clinical presentation. We evaluated haematological parameters, which
are widely available and assessable, as indices of clinical outcome in SCD.
One hundred and thirtysix consecutive patients who presented in the sickle cell clinic of Nnamdi Azikiwe University
teaching hospital were studied using a questionnaire. Haematological parameters for full blood count (FBC) for each patient were
obtained using a cell counter. Chi square text was used to compare frequencies and generate p values.
The presence of sickle cell complications was significantly associated with raised white blood cell count (WBC) above 11
? 109/l (p = 0.03); also close to significance (p = 0.07) was the trend that mean WBC of the patients increased with increasing
numbers of complications. Mean packed cell volume (PCV) and WBC tended towards normal as the age at diagnosis increased,
being significant for PCV (p = 0.01). Increased frequency of crisis did not necessarily result in more blood transfusion.
Our data provide additional support that widely available and assessable haematological parameters such as PCV
and WBC can be used as indices to predict SCD outcome.
determine a simplified assessment procedure by which apple powdery mildew severity/index could be predicted from incidence
data and develop incidence-severity relationship in apple cultivars under Uttaranchal hilly conditions. The overwintering mildew
(initial pathogen population) is a key primary determinant in the development of secondary mildew epidemic. The deleterious
effect of extremely cold temperatures on overwintering of apple powdery mildew has long been recognized. However, the basis
for the reduction in disease incidence has remained somewhat elusive. The development of powdery mildew (Podosphaera
leucotricha) on ten popular cultivars of apple, viz., Mollies Delicious, Red Chief, Braeburn, Bakingham, Early Shanbery, Jona
Mac, Red Free, Red Fuzi, Golden Spur, and Chaubatia Anupam were studied to determine incidence-severity relationship. The
disease was confined primarily to the vegetative terminal shoots early in the season and progressed to the other leaves later. The
use of percentage scales and keys of visual disease severity, remote sensing, and some indirect methods like spore counts and
disease incidence are considered valid approaches for disease assessment. The relationship between increase in incidence of
powdery mildew in relation to severity can be established either by making sequential records in one tree during the progress of
an epidemic or by assessing many trees with different amounts of disease at one point of time. Thus, from the above analysis, it is
evident that a combination of several factors like the presence of susceptible host, virulent pathogen, and congenial environment
for disease development during receptive phenological stage of apple tree, was responsible for the incidence of the powdery
mildew on apple in Uttaranchal during 2003 - 2005 orchard seasons.
Dr Okocha E.C completed his residency training in haematology and Onchology at the age of 31 years from the Nigerian National Postgraduate
Medical College; and postdoctoral fellowship from Duke University, Institute of Genome sciences and Policy. He is the head, haematology
department, Nnamdi Azikiwe University, Nnewi campus, Nigeria. His area of research interest is sickle cell disease. He has published papers in local
and international journals.
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