Seven members of the family of host selective toxins were reported from Alternaria alternate and Alternaria solani by
Nishimura lab . The suppressor effector for hypersensitive response of host cells were reported firstly by using Phytophthora
infestans by Tomiyama lab. The host selective toxin (HST) effect on the host plant and induced the infection of the pathogen into
the tissue, which has no resistant genes against HST. The suppressor effector induced the inhibition of hypersensitive cell death,
accumulation of phytoalexins and the symptom of HR, hypersensitive response, in host tissues. Recently, the Ca
protein kinase in the plasma membrane of host cells was stimulated after the treatment of Alternaric acid, a HST, from A. solani
and the suppressor effector from P. infestans
, in the assay as reported. This means that the kinase, CPKs, could recognize
the HST and suppressor in host plasma membrane and regulate the occurrence of HR in host cells. So far, the receptor sites for
the PAMPS were reported by several groups. However, there are few reports with regard to the receptor for HST in plant cells.
The CPKs in the host plasma membrane are the candidate against receptor of HST in potato and other plants.. The suppressor of
P. infestans has a β-1,3 and β 1,6 linkages of glucose, and also contains β-linkages of glucosamine.
Recently, cyclic nucleotide gated protein channel (CNGC) activity was induced by the treatment of At pep peptides
effector in host cells, resulting the HR response in the cells. The CNGC channel activity was reported by using the Fluorescent
protein detection method . For the activation of CPKs and calmodulins, the infulux of calcium into the cytoplasm is important
physiological phenomena in host cells. In Arabidopsis, CNGC played a role for the occurrence of Ca
influx into the cytosol in
host cell , as reported
The CPKs signaling cascades regulated the occurrence of HR response in host cells , and the HST effect on the inhibition of
HR in potato and tomato .
Dr. Naotaka Furuichi received his Ph.D. degree in Molecular Plant Pathology with the late Professor Kohei Tomiyama at Nagoya University (1981) and had postdoctoral training in the lab of Professor Shoyo Nishimura (1982, Nagoya University) and of Professor Anne J. Anderson (1988, Utah State University, Logan, Utah). He was a Project PI of Plant Defense Center, Niigata University, (2003). He also had the Visiting Professor lab, Protein Institute, Osaka University (2005-2007). He had been elected as a Fulblight Senior Scientist, Department of Biology Utah State University, Logan, Utah (1993-94) and as a Visiting Professor, Department of Biology, Utah State University, Logan, Utah (1993-94).
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