alexa Abstract | Neurological Sequale of Varicella Zoster Virus Infection
E-ISSN: 2314-7326
P-ISSN: 2314-7334

Journal of Neuroinfectious Diseases
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Case Report Open Access

Abstract

Background: Varicella-zoster virus meningoencephalitis is an uncommon complication in immunocompetent adults. Typically, most patients present with neurological symptoms within 7-10 days of onset of rash . Also neurological symptoms preceding the rash or in the absence of the rash are rare. Methods: A 50 year-old female experienced urinary and bowel retention and numbness of heel for three days. She had a painful rash on her right thigh eight weeks earlier. MRI was normal. VZV PCR was positive in the CSF. Her neurological symptoms resolved with Acyclovir. A 23 year-old woman experienced left lower extremity weakness and numbness of right leg and abdomen and urinary retention for one week. She had decreased pin prick in right leg up to T8 level. Serum Hepatitis B and Varicella Zoster virus antibodies were positive. MRI showed restricted diffusion and T2/FLAIR hyperintensity in the pons, mid brain and medial temporal lobe. She was treated with steroids and IVIG. After one month she developed fever, blurry vision and vesicular rash on left forearm. Skin biopsy was positive for Varicella zoster virus antibody. Retinal necrosis was found to be consistent with Varicella zoster virus infection. Patient improved neurologically on Valtrex 1 gm TID. An 84-year-old male had symptoms of severe radicular thoracic pain, urinary and bowel incontinence for one week. MRI of the Thoracolumbar spine showed an intradural, intramedullary enhancing lesion at the T7-T8 level with extensive edema. Autopsy revealed viral encephalomyelitis involving the medulla and multiple foci within the spinal cord with inflammation, necrosis, along with Cowdry viral inclusions consistent with Varicella-zoster virus. Conclusion: The above mentioned cases high light atypical presentation of varicella zoster virus infection.The possibility of varicella zoster virus infection should be considered in patients presenting with un explained myelopathy and restricted diffusion changes, mass lesion or un usual CNS symptoms. Importance: Multiple neurologic complications may follow the reactivation of varicella-zoster virus (VZV), including herpes zoster, vasculopathies, myelitis, retinitis, and zoster sine herpete (pain without rash). Myelitis is one of the rarest neurological complications of vzv infection. Observations: We report three cases of VZV myelitis, two of them were immunocompetent and in two myelitis was associated with concomitant cerebral and brain stem strokes. Conclusions and Relevance: In immunocompetent patient VZV myelitis can manifest in the absence of a rash. Diffusion weighted images on MRI can be normal in the setting of acute myelitis due to VZV infection requiring CSF VZV PCR analysis to make prompt diagnosis and appropriate early treatment can lead to full recovery. Oral treatment for VZV rash does not preclude development of myelitis and may require intravenous antiviral medications to treat the infection subsequently. VZV infection can present as mass lesion of the spinal cord. Concomitant cerebral hemisphere and brain stem ischemic lesions and myelitis can occur due to vzv infection.

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Author(s): Shamaelah Javed, Maheep Singh, Ramandeep Sahni, Stephen Marks, Michael Tenner, George Kleinmanand Ahluwalia singh Brij

Keywords

Nervous System, Viral Infection, Fungal Infection, Neuroinfectious Agents, Non-Polio Enterovirus Infections, Opisthorchis Infection,Sinus Infections,Central nervous system vasculitis,Central nervous system vasculitis

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