Detection Of Airway Inflammation Among Cement Workers In A Cement Factory, Asyut Governorate, Egypt (2017-2018) | 107038
Journal of Community Medicine & Health Education
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Introduction: There is rapid increase in the global production and consumption in cement
industry. Egypt is one of the greatest cement producers worldwide. Cement dust particles
is the major source of occupational hazard in cement factory. The main routes of entry
of cement particles are inhalation and swallowing leading to different clinical affection
involving respiratory and non-respiratory systems. Prolonged exposure especially to
high concentration of cement dust may provoke inflammation, resulted in functional and
Objective: The current work aimed to explore the most important correlates associated
with inflammation among cement workers.
Methodology: We conducted a cross-sectional study to elicit the effect of working in
cement factory on the level of airway inflammations among workers. Inflammatory
process was assessed by clinical manifestations, spirometer, fractional exhaled Nitric
oxide (FeNO) (by exhaled breath condensate method), blood sample (for complete blood
picture and inflammatory markers: total IgE, IL10 and TNF alpha), sputum analysis for
Results: The total dust particles concentration ranged between 1.99 mg/m³ in raw mills area
to 3.35 mg/m³ in quarry area. Total sample was 86 workers; from four main departments
(quarry, production, packing and maintenance). There was significance difference in the
level of markers between different departments; TNF alpha was higher in the packing area
(p=0.002) and fractional exhaled nitric oxide was higher in the maintenance (p=0.02).
Moreover there was negative mild correlation between dust particles concentrations (mg/
m³) and FEV1 (predicted %) (r=-0.2, p=0.05) and FVC (predicted %) (r=-0.2, p=0.02).
The difference in rates of respiratory symptoms among high vs. low exposed workers
was statistically insignificant. TNF alpha was higher in high exposed workers than low
exposed (p=0.01), there was positive strong correlation between TNF alpha and IL10
Conclusion: The study suggests that TNF alpha and exhaled NO are good predictors
of early pulmonary inflammation even before symptoms and may be used in workers
of cement factory especially those with higher exposure and in areas with higher dust
concentrations, the most important inflammation correlates among cement workers were
job stress and smoking.
Recommendations: The findings of this research will help building new strategies to
protect the most vulnerable workers
Mariam Roshdy Elkhayat has completed her Master’s degree from Assiut University in Egypt. She is working as an Assistant Lecturer in Public Health Department and has international participation in “HIS Middle East Infection Prevention Summit” Dubai, June 3-4, 2015 conference and publication in Egyptian Journal of Occupational Medicine 2015, also has effective activities in PLAN, CDC and Population Council organizations. She is also working as Safety Trainer for different companies such as CEMEX & TAQA (national gas company) and acts as Consultant in youth friendly clinic and in Assiut National Insurance Organization for occupational compensations.