Purpose: To investigate the effects of lead and other metals on the pregnancy outcomes and mental/motor development in
children, we have conducted a longitudinal study in Tehran, Iran.
Methods: Apparently healthy pregnant women who referred to the research hospitals for prenatal care at first trimester of
pregnancy (gestational age of 8-12 week) were asked to participate in the present survey. Mothers� blood (one for each pregnancy
trimester, i.e., 3 times) and the umbilical cord blood samples were collected and subjected to ICP-MS analysis for measurement of
metal concentrations. We invited the mothers and their children when the children were at 18 to 36 months of age. Early Child
Development Inventory was used to assess the development of children. The developmental inventory included 60 questions
cover seven different development areas.
Results: Mean lead levels for 1st, 2nd and 3rd trimesters in mother�s blood and umbilical cord blood were 38.5, 34.5, 37.7, and
28.7μg/L, respectively. The sum of the developmental score was inversely related to the mother blood lead concentrations at first
trimester (r = -0.193, p < 0.05). Less than 5% of the children had the mean developmental score lower than cutoff value; they did
less well than children who were younger after adjusted for children�s age and sex. Language comprehensive, gross motor, and
self help score were at higher relationships with the mother blood lead levels (r = -0.285, -0.230, and -0.206, respectively, p value
Conclusions: Increased blood lead in early pregnancy period may adversely affect children�s developmental capacity at levels that
believed to be safe.
Dr. Mohsen Vigeh obtained PhD degree in Social Medicine, the University of Tokyo, Japan, and completed medical doctorate course in Faculty of Medicine, Tehran University, Iran. He had been worked for Tehran University of Medical Sciences for several years and currently is scientific staff of the National Institute of Occupational Safety and Health, Japan. He has collaboration with several local and overseas universities/institute and dose peer review for some journals. Dr. Vigeh research interest is ?reproductive toxicology? and ?urban air pollution?.
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