Journal of Marine Science: Research & Development
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The Earth is warming rapidly due to the emission of greenhouse gases (GHGs), mainly from industrialization, deforestation
and increased use of fossil fuels for transport. The GHGs from human activities are among the major causes for global
warming and climate change which have contributed to the variations in rainfall patterns (high, low and intensive rainfall) and
seasons. These have direct and indirect impacts on environment, water resources, agriculture, forests and biodiversity, health,
infrastructure development, tourism and livelihoods. Glaciers are receding in the Himalayan region, Africa, South Pacific, Arctic,
North America, South America, Europe and Antarctica. Glacial retreat is the most visually convincing evidence of climate change.
Scientific evidence, as cited by the Inter-governmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), clearly indicates the
wide scale of climate change. Average global temperatures are expected to raise 1.4-5.8?C by the end of the 21st century. Warming
in the Himalayan region has been higher than global average. Weather patterns are becoming more unpredictable and extreme
- dry seasons become dryer and wet seasons wetter. This phenomenon is causing threat in the water supply - affecting lives and
livelihoods of the people and food security.
The issues of climate change can be addressed by formulating and implementing relevant policies and programmes.
Policy makers must ease the transition to a carbon-free energy industry by passing legislation that creates favorable market
conditions, shaping new frameworks for change and ensuring that the Kyoto Protocol enters into force. In addition, the effective
implementation of the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) provisions can help to minimize
the current effects.
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