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GLOBAL BURDEN OF CHRONIC HEPATITIS B VIRUS INFECTION IN PRISON | 74465
Epidemiology: Open Access
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Statement of the Problem: Despite a vaccine against Hepatitis B Virus (HBV) has been available since 1982, the prevalence of adult with chronic HBV infection in sub-Saharan Africa and East Asia was estimated to be 5–10%. High rate of chronic infections is also found in the Amazon and the southern parts of eastern and central Europe. In the Middle East and the Indian subcontinent, the prevalence is of 2–5%. Less than 1% of the population of Western Europe and North America was chronically infected. Given the high prevalence of infections such as human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), HBV, and Hepatitis C Virus (HCV) among inmates, particularly those with a history of injection drug use, prison is considered reservoir facilitating these infections. The prevalence of HBsAg in prisoners in west and central Africa was very high (23.5%). High levels of chronic HBV infection were also reported in east and southern Africa (5.7%) and in Eastern Europe and central Asia (10.4%). Purpose: The purpose of this review is to analyse the most recent data on HBV prevalence and vaccination in prison. Methodology: Relevant studies were searched on PubMed database. The Centres for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) has highlighted the importance of HBV blood screening and the subsequent anti-HBV vaccination in the prison population. The vaccination was recommended to all inmates and it represents an opportunity to prevent HBV infection in persons at high risk. In these subjects, an accelerated hepatitis B immunization schedule may result in a rapid seroconversion and practically in an early short-term protection. Conclusion & Significance: Although hepatitis B vaccination of inmates has been recommended since the vaccine first became available in 1982, only some state vaccinate inmates routinely. Therefore, it is necessary to have collaboration between public health, clinicians and correctional authorities to implement vaccination program.
Cristina Stasi graduated in Medicine and Surgery at the Catholic University of “Sacro Cuore”, Rome (2001). In 2006 she specialized in Gastroenterology at the University of Pisa. From 2006 to 2009 she took part in Clinical Research Projects at the University Hospital “Careggi”, Florence. At the same time, she improved her knowledge in Study Design, Management of Clinical Research Project, Statistics and Epidemiology. In 2013, she received her PhD in Experimental and Clinical Medicine from the University of Florence. She has published about 50 papers in reputed international journals and has been serving as an Editorial Board Member of some international journals.
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