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reast cancer has been a big global health issue since 1990s. Breast cancer incidence ranks first among all women cancers and
continues to raise worldwide, most rapidly in low risk populations. In the past decades, thousands of medical/health/other
scientists have been devoted to breast cancer research. The etiology of breast cancer, however, is not completely understood.
This presentation will address the perspectives of breast cancer etiology and new research directions based on comprehensive
information from molecular medicine, clinical medicine, and epidemiology of breast cancer including (1) plausibility of smoking
in breast carcinogenesis; (2) physiological properties, susceptibility windows, and exposure timing of breast cells; (3) role of
exogenous hormones in breast carcinogenesis; (4) biological mechanisms of synergistic interactions between smoking and
exogenous hormones in breast carcinogenesis; and (5) evidence from epidemiologic studies and the fitted secular trend between
smoking rate, exogenous hormone use, and breast cancer incidence in past decades.
Hong-Hong Zhu obtained her Ph.D. in Epidemiology from Johns Hopkins University Bloomberg School of Public Health, M.Sc. from Clemson
University, and M.D. from Zhejiang University. Dr. Zhu has expertise in epidemiologic methods, application of epidemiologic methods in clinical
medicine, public health and other health sciences, cancer and other chronic diseases prevention and control, toxicology, food and nutrition, and
molecular medicine. Especially, Dr. Zhu has a unique expertise in translating basic research into animal/tissue research and into clinical and
population research and vice versa, interpreting clinical and population research results using biologic mechanisms from basic
and animal/tissue research.
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