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Alarming Threat Of Mimosa Diplotricha In Unique Savanna Grassland Ecosystem Of Kaziranga National Park, A UNESCO World Heritage Site: Problems And Solutions | 4596
ISSN: 2157-7625

Journal of Ecosystem & Ecography
Open Access

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Alarming threat of Mimosa Diplotricha in unique savanna grassland ecosystem of kaziranga national park, a UNESCO world heritage site: Problems and solutions

Biodiversity & Sustainable Energy Development-2012

Praveen Kumar Verma

Accepted Abstracts: J Ecosyst Ecogr

DOI: 10.4172/2157-7625.S1.010

In Kaziranga National Park, (a world Heritage site) there are three main types of vegetation: alluvial inundated grasslands, tropical wet evergreen forests and tropical semi-evergreen forests. The KNP of Assam is the ecologically famous for Savanna Grass Ecosystem, characterized by subtropical climate where the grass layer is almost continuous interrupted with some trees and shrubs in varying proportion. Grasslands predominate in the west, with the tall grasses like elephant grass on the higher ground and the shorter grasses growing around the small water bodies, locally known as 'beels'. The characteristics of this unique biome are combination of Wet and Dry seasons. The dependent of this unique Ecosystem are Great Indian one horned Rhino, Royal Bengal tiger, Elephant, Largest population of Swamp deer, Wild Buffalo with many more others.The main tall grass species are Impereta cylindrica, Erianthus spp., Phargmites karka, Saccharum sp (S. spontanium and other), Pennisetum purpureum (Elephant grass) and Vetiveria zizanioides while small grass combines with Cyprus rotundus, Echinochlo, Paspalum longifoliun, Nareng, and Echinochloa species while several other also part of this system like Eragrostis uniloides, Paspalum conjugatum, Themeda villosa, Oplismenus composites, Centotheca leppacea, Schoenoplectus, and Poa. The several part of this unique Savanna grassland ecosystem or ''matrix of grasses? is being transformed through a polymorphic weed Mimosa diplotricha which belongs to Fabaceae. Due to their seed ecology it establish in new area as runner, climber and shrub. Even fire to grasses leads to resprouting of seed of Mimosa which releases plentiful seeds that readily establish seedlings on the fertile ash bed. The species introduced in Assam by Tea growers of upper Assam as Nitrogen fixation plant. Year after year species inters in Kaziranga National Park through river Brahmaputra and some other small rivers and become naturalized in park. The species have harmful effect on herbivorous due to ?Mimosin?, a poisonous amino acid. The plant is exceptionally persistent because it produces physically and physiologically durable seeds which can stay alive in the soil for several years. Due to their high potential seed output the series of experiments done to control M. diplotricha for further spreading. Its includes total exhausting of seed bank through uprooting of regenerated seedlings continuously and carefully systematic effort which exhausts all soil seed bank. Small plants are very easy to hand pulled out even mature one also pulled out pre- seed setting stage. In case of mature seed stage the hole plant cut and then burned on site with a very hot fire to destroy them, low fire enhance germination. The paper is discussed about conservation of unique Savona Grass ecosystem for management of Kaziranga National Park, a lost home of ?One horn Great Indian Rhino?.
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