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Heavy metals (HMs) toxicity is one of the most abiotic stresses leading to hazardous effects in green algae. Their toxicities
are related to the excessive accumulation of reactive oxygen species (ROS), which can cause lipid peroxidation, oxidation
of protein, inactivation of enzymes, DNA damage and/or interact with other vital constituents in the cells. Green algae evolved
a sophisticated antioxidant defense system not only to scavenge ROS but also tosequester by several specific binding ligands
of glutathione (GSH).In both direct and indirect control of ROS and their reaction products in algal cells protecting the cells
from HM-induced oxidative damage. Recent biotechnological molecular studies have shown that cloning and transformation
technique of Glutathione S-transferase that cloned into pTRA-K-GST via Agrobacterium tumefaciens strain (GV3101) to
Chlamydomonas reinhardtii is one of the recent techniques for the auto defense against HMs. In this regard an experiment was
conducted in which both transgenic and wild Chlamydomonas sp was allowed to grow in presence of different concentrations
of nickel and cadmium (25.50 and 75 μm) for the mid exponential phase (7 days) then the specific activities of GST and some
antioxidant enzymes were calculated. Moreover the expression of GST in both transgenic and wild was carried out using real
time PCR. Spectrophotometric studies reveal that specific activity of glutathione S-transferase and the activity of antioxidant
enzymes in transgenic were obviously more than their corresponding activities in wild species. Nickle enhance the specific
activity of antioxidant enzymes (peroxidase, superoxide dismutase and catalase) rather than cadmium.
Keywords: Agrobacterium, antioxidants, Chlamydomonas, Glutathione S- transferase, heavy metals.
Asmaa Hussein is currently a assistant Lecturer at Botany Department, Plant Biotechnology Lab, Faculty of Science, Zagazig University, Egypt. She has an M.Sc. in Botany (Microbiology) - 2014. She participated in the 12th international conference on environmental sciences entitled “Basic Science and its Applications for Environmental Protection”.