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Punganur Cattle is one of the world?s smallest Bos indicus cattle originated in Punganur town in Chittoor district of Andhra Pradesh.
This breed is known for its short stature, high milk production efficiency and efficient reproductive characters. The Jamindars of
Punganur were erstwhile Diwans in the Princely state of Mysore. They took fancy on this small breed of cattle and improved this breed
and got the name as Punganur breed of cattle. These animals were found in the taluks of Palamaner, Madanapalli, Vayalpad, Piler and
Chandragiri. However the breed is on the verge of extinction due to extensive indiscriminate crossbreeding over a period of time in
breeding tract. Attempts are made to rescue the breed at Livestock Research Station, Palamaner, under Sri Venkateswara Veterinary
University. Under the ICAR adhoc scheme on the ?Preservation and improvement of Punganur breed of cattle?, a demographic survey
was conducted in the year 1993 in the breeding tract in Chittoor district covering about 150 villages. The major effort was to multiply
the stock and study the morphological characters, production and reproduction parameters. The most important physical character
is the height of the animal which is approximately one metre. The animals have a long tail almost touching the ground, which is the
most unique feature of this particular breed. Reddy et al (2004) reported a lactation yield of 633.4+21.7 litres over a lactation period of
272.0+8.9 days with an average milk yield of 2.29+0.06 lts. The peak yield was3.92+ 0.11 litres reached in 33.5+1.6 days and an average
dry period of 188.1+11.54 days. These animals can be maintained economically and can survive on scarce grazing conditions with
minimal care and shelter. Later a NATP project on ?Conservation on Punganur Germplasm by Semen Preservation? was undertaken
during the years 1999 to 2004 with the objective to produce 500 doses of frozen semen from 25 unrelated bulls procured from the
field and 5000 doses of semen produced during the project was handed over to the NBAGR, Karnal for future use. At present embryos
collected from Punganur cows are being cryopreserved for future purpose.
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