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Studies On Biochemical Changes As AcetylCholine Esterase (AChE) And ButyrylCholine Esterase (BChE) Of Organophosphorus Pesticides In Agricultural Sprayers Of Krishna District, A.P | 4421
ISSN: 2157-7625

Journal of Ecosystem & Ecography
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Studies on biochemical changes as AcetylCholine Esterase (AChE) and ButyrylCholine Esterase (BChE) of organophosphorus pesticides in agricultural sprayers of Krishna district, A.P

Biodiversity & Sustainable Energy Development-2012

K S Tilak

Keynote: J Ecosyst Ecogr

DOI: 10.4172/2157-7625-S1.001

Food, fish, forage are the three necessities for human beings. Concomitant to the demands the pesticide usage is inevitable. This ind iscriminate usage leads to contamination of one class of pesticides that is Organophosphates [OPs] in human being causing biochemical changes which is an index of toxicity. The biochemical enzymatic activities of AChE and BChE levels were measured in the controls and exposed group by the spectrophotometric method of Ellman (1991). Absorption of Organophosphorus compounds is commonly assessed by monitoring the activity of acetyl cholinesterase, butyryl cholinesterase activities in human blood. The activities of both the enzymes AChE and BChE were decreased significantly in the OP pesticide exposed groups as compared to the values recorded in the control group. As there is a decrease resulting in the activity. AChE was found to be more than 45% and 36% and in case of BChE the decreased levels of cholinesterase in the exposed group may be resulting from dephosphorylation of the enzymes due to direct action of OP pesticides. The AChE and BChE levels were studied on related to age, effect of smoking which showed no significant decrease. But the activity of these enzymes showed a significant decrease in relation to duration of exposure to OPs pesticides, particularly more decreased activity seen in chronic exposed group when compared to acute exposed group. This significant decrease in AChE and BChE activities following prolonged exposure to OP insecticides may be resulting from ageing of both the enzymes which tenders the cholinesterases inactive. In fact the continuous exposure does not allow the recovery of inactive AChE and BChE to their active form as the process will not be reversible anymore. Absorption of OP pesticides into the humans results in the toxicity by the production of Oxygen free radicals probably because of the alteration in the normal homeostasis of the body resulting in oxidative stress due to non maintenance of the antioxidants continuously. The generation of reactive free radicals overwhelms the antioxidant defense, which leads to disturbances in cell integrity leading to cell damage. OP pesticide toxicity results in inhibition of Cholinesterase activity. As these chemicals may be toxic in lethal concentration being acute and in sub-lethal concentration the effects are chronic. Based on the severity of toxicity the symptoms like tiredness, weakness, nausea and dimness, headache, sweating, tearing, vomiting, limited vision, diarrhea, polyuria, muscle trembling, hypotension, breathing disorders etc take pl ace. Such prolonged exposure, contamination and residue deposition leads to the survival of the human beings may be in future
K S Tilak has completed his Ph.D at the age of 29 years from Andhra University. He worked as Dean Faculty of Natural Sciences, Head of the Department of Zoology and aquaculture, Board of Studies Chairman (PG) Zoology, Coordinator for M.Sc. Zoology (Distance Education) in Acharya Nagarjuna University. Guided 14 Ph.D?s & 13 M.Phil?s. Attended 4 International conferences in Czekoslovakia, France, U.S.A, Canada. He has published more than 78 papers in reputed journals and serving as an editorial board member in Journal of Environmental Conservation, Lucknow; Journal of Ecotoxicology & Ecobiology, Tamilnadu; Journal of Environmental Biology, Uttaranchal. He conducted 3 National and 2 International seminars/ conferences
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