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Food, fish, forage are the three necessities for human beings. Concomitant to the demands the pesticide usage is inevitable. This
iscriminate usage leads to contamination of one class of pesticides that is Organophosphates [OPs] in human being causing
biochemical changes which is an index of toxicity. The biochemical enzymatic activities of AChE and BChE levels were measured in
the controls and exposed group by the spectrophotometric method of Ellman (1991). Absorption of Organophosphorus compounds is
commonly assessed by monitoring the activity of acetyl cholinesterase, butyryl cholinesterase activities in human blood.
The activities of both the enzymes AChE and BChE were decreased significantly in the OP pesticide exposed groups as compared to
the values recorded in the control group. As there is a decrease resulting in the activity. AChE was found to be more than 45% and 36%
and in case of BChE the decreased levels of cholinesterase in the exposed group may be resulting from dephosphorylation of the enzymes
due to direct action of OP pesticides.
The AChE and BChE levels were studied on related to age, effect of smoking which showed no significant decrease. But the activity
of these enzymes showed a significant decrease in relation to duration of exposure to OPs pesticides, particularly more decreased activity
seen in chronic exposed group when compared to acute exposed group. This significant decrease in AChE and BChE activities following
prolonged exposure to OP insecticides may be resulting from ageing of both the enzymes which tenders the cholinesterases inactive.
In fact the continuous exposure does not allow the recovery of inactive AChE and BChE to their active form as the process will not be
Absorption of OP pesticides into the humans results in the toxicity by the production of Oxygen free radicals probably because of the
alteration in the normal homeostasis of the body resulting in oxidative stress due to non maintenance of the antioxidants continuously.
The generation of reactive free radicals overwhelms the antioxidant defense, which leads to disturbances in cell integrity leading to cell
damage. OP pesticide toxicity results in inhibition of Cholinesterase activity. As these chemicals may be toxic in lethal concentration being
acute and in sub-lethal concentration the effects are chronic. Based on the severity of toxicity the symptoms like tiredness, weakness,
nausea and dimness, headache, sweating, tearing, vomiting, limited vision, diarrhea, polyuria, muscle trembling, hypotension, breathing
disorders etc take pl
ace. Such prolonged exposure, contamination and residue deposition leads to the survival of the human beings may
be in future
K S Tilak has completed his Ph.D at the age of 29 years from Andhra University. He worked as Dean Faculty of Natural Sciences, Head of the Department
of Zoology and aquaculture, Board of Studies Chairman (PG) Zoology, Coordinator for M.Sc. Zoology (Distance Education) in Acharya Nagarjuna University.
Guided 14 Ph.D?s & 13 M.Phil?s. Attended 4 International conferences in Czekoslovakia, France, U.S.A, Canada. He has published more than 78 papers
in reputed journals and serving as an editorial board member in Journal of Environmental Conservation, Lucknow; Journal of Ecotoxicology & Ecobiology,
Tamilnadu; Journal of Environmental Biology, Uttaranchal. He conducted 3 National and 2 International seminars/ conferences
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