Canada ranks among the highest in international measurements of government transparency, civil liberties, quality of life, economic freedom, and education. Canada is a country in the northern part of North America. Canada's border with the United States is the world's longest land border. Beginning in the 15th century, British and French colonies was established on the Atlantic coast, where the first establishment of a region called Canada occurrence.
Geographically, its ten provinces and three territories extend from the Atlantic to the Pacific and northward into the Arctic Ocean.
Canada also has a sizable manufacturing sector, based in Central Canada, with the automobile industry and aircraft industry being especially important .Canada is the world's second-largest country by total area and the fourth-largest country by land area. Canada it is a federal parliamentary democracy and a constitutional monarchy. Canada having the 11th or 15th-largest (PPP) economy in the world, it is one of the world's wealthiest nations, and it is a member of the Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) and Group of Seven (G7).
Canadians who have won Nobel prizes for science: F.H. BANTING and British-born J.J.R. MACLEOD were awarded, and Gerhard HERZBERG, Henry TAUB, John POLANYI and Rudolph Marcus. David Hubel won the prizes for the clinical and medicine with Swedish-born Torsten Wiesel for their ground-breaking work involving the mapping of the visual cortex. Sidney ALTMAN (born in Montréal in 1939 and based at Yale University since 1971) shared the prize for chemistry in 1989 for a discovery of the catalytic properties of the genetic material RNA. Clinical pharmacology as a section of the International Union of Physiological Sciences, IUPHAR became an independent organization in 1966 and member of the International Council for Science (ICSU). The first World Congress of Pharmacology was held in Stockholm, Sweden in 1961 and subsequently that will hold for every three years. After 1990 the World Congresses were moved to a four-year interval. These are the meetings not only present the latest pharmacological advances in research accomplishments, technology, and methodology, but also provide a forum for international collaboration and exchange of ideas. A General Assembly, that consisting of delegates from all the member societies, is convened during the congresses so member societies have an opportunity to elect the Executive Committee and vote on matters concerning the governance and activities of the union. There will list of clinical journals and journals in clinical research and list of pharmacology clinical journals .