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India is officially the Republic of India is a country in South Asia. It is the seventh-largest country by area, the second-most populous country (with over 1.2 billion people), and the most populous democracy in the world. It is bounded by the Indian Ocean on the south, the Arabian Sea on the south-west, and the Bay of Bengal on the south-east.
Geographically India lies on the Indian Plate, the northern portion of the Indo-Australian Plate, whose continental crust forms the Indian subcontinent. The country is situated north of the equator. It is the seventh-largest country in the world. The northern frontiers of India are defined largely by the Himalayan mountain range, where it shares land borders with Pakistan to the west; China, Nepal, and Bhutan to the north-east; and Myanmar (Burma) and Bangladesh to the east. In the Indian Ocean, India is in the vicinity of Sri Lanka and the Maldives. The Ganga is the longest river originating in India.
According to the International Monetary Fund (IMF), the Indian economy in 2015 was nominally worth US$2.183 trillion; it is the 7th-largest economy by market exchange rates. With its average annual GDP growth rate over the past two decades was 5.8%. However, the country ranks 140th in the world in nominal GDP per capita and 129th in GDP per capita at PPP. Council of Scientific and Industrial Research (CSIR), established in 1942, is an autonomous body and the largest research and development (R&D) organization in India. It runs 37 laboratories and 39 field stations or extension centers spread across the nation, CSIR includes aerospace engineering, Structural engineering, ocean sciences, Clinical Science, Life sciences, metallurgy, chemicals, mining, food, petroleum, leather, and environment.
In Physics, Medicine, Chemistry etc including all fields this island nation produced 12 Nobel laureates so far, In India Council of Scientific and Industrial Research (CSIR), established in 1942, is the largest research and development (R&D) organization in India. It runs 37 laboratories. CSIR published numerous clinical science journals and clinical trials. Arcot Ramaswamy Mudaliar became the most instrumental in the creation of CSIR in India. They are 18 journals and 3 popular science magazines related to clinical sciences and as well as clinical research and trials. The csir has a wide range of institutes all over india which include Indian Institute of Toxicology Research, National Institute of Science Communication and Information Resources, National Institute of Science Technology and Development Studies, Central Building Research Institute and may more.