Italy is officially known as the Italian Republic is a unitary parliamentary republic in Europe. Italy covers an area of 301,338 km2 and has a largely temperate seasonal climate; due to its shape, it is often referred to in Italy as lo Stivale (the Boot) with 61 million inhabitants, it is the 4th most populous EU member state. Located in the heart of the Mediterranean Sea, Italy shares open land borders with France, Switzerland, Austria, Slovenia, San Marino and Vatican City.
Italy is located in Southern Europe. To the north, Italy borders France, Switzerland, Austria, and Slovenia, and is roughly delimited by the Alpine watershed, enclosing the Po Valley and the Venetian Plain. To the south, it consists of the entirety of the Italian Peninsula and the two Mediterranean islands of Sicily and Sardinia, in addition to many smaller islands. The sovereign states of San Marino and the Vatican City are enclaves within Italy, while Campione d'Italia is an Italian exclave in Switzerland. The country is situated at the meeting point of the Eurasian Plate and the African Plate, leading to considerable seismic and volcanic activity. There are 14 volcanoes in Italy.
Italy has a capitalist mixed economy, ranking as the third-largest in the Euro zone and the eighth-largest in the world. The country is a founding member of the G7, G8, the Euro zone and the OECD. Italy is regarded as one of the world's most industrialized nations and a leading country in world trade and exports. It is a highly developed country, with the world's 8th highest quality of life and the 25th Human Development Indextaly is the world's sixth largest manufacturing country. Italy positions itself in the group of “Moderate Innovators” and the country is still facing major challenges in order to catch up with the OECD leaders, since 2006 Italy has shown important signs of positive growth in R&D sectors. In the past years, Italy registered a gradual but important increase in R&D expenditure.
In Physics, Medicine, Chemistry etc including all fields this island nation produced 20 Nobel laureates so far, National Research Council, is an Italian public organization set up to support scientific, clinical research and technological research. Its headquarters are in Rome. It promotes collaboration in scientific and technological fields, and in the technical regulations field, with organizations and institutions of other Countries, there are numerous Journals of clinical science as well as many other fields institutes in Italy such as Institute for Research on and development ( CERIS ), Institute of computing applications , " Mauro Picone.