Journal of Obesity & Weight Loss Therapy
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The history of nutritional recommendations for preventing cardiovascular
diseases (CVD) and general recommendation for fat consumption have
undergone a number of revisions lately. In this lecture, we will briefly review the
history of fat recommendations, attempting to reach conclusions on which and
how much fat do we need? The first observations on this topic were made by
Anitschkow in animals and de Langen in people, at the beginning of the 20th
century. The seven countries study done (1958-1983) by Ancel Kyes, led to the
recommendation of a low fat and low saturated-fat diet. Several intervention
studies supported these results (70s of the 20th century). However, re-analysis of
the results of some of these studies after the discovery of new data that were not
included in the original analysis, have led to the opposite conclusions. According
to Sydney diet heart study and MCE (Minnesota Coronary Experiment) (2016)
and pure study (Prospective Urban Rural Epidemiology) (2016) also supported
the claim that there is no harm in saturated fats. However, this study was criticized
for its interpretation of the results. In order to resolve this disagreement, a
"national committee" was gathered in the USA and, in accordance with the
"pyramid of scientific proof ", its members choose four intervention trials in order
to conduct a meta-analysis. According to their results, polyunsaturated fats were
considered to be preferable over saturated fats. Has the "fat war" ended? Most
likely, marketing, research and personal beliefs will remain important factors in
any future recommendations.
Sigal Eilat-Adar is a registered Nutritionist and an Epidemiologist. She completed her Post-doctoral project at the MedStar Health Research Institute, Maryland, USA, studying the nutrition of minorities: Native Americans and Alaska Natives. She is the Director of a second-degree program in physical activity and healthy lifestyle education at the Academic College at Wingate, and a Lecturer at the Tel Aviv University, both in Israel. She was the Head of a committee that published a position paper on nutritional recommendations for treating and preventing cardiovascular disease, written in cooperation between the Israel Heart Society and the Israel Dietetic Association.