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Fasting is often used for obesity correction. Fibroblast Growth Factor-21 (FGF21) is a hormone secreted by the liver during
fasting that elicits diverse aspects of the adaptive fasting response. In mice, FGF21 is induced through a peroxisome
proliferator-activated receptor ??± (PPAR ??±)-dependent mechanism. It is unknown that whether fasting increases the FGF21
expression in the liver in a sex-specific manner. We found, that in females, 24 hours-fasting increased hepatic PPAR??± and
FGF21 gene expressions and blood FGF21 and adiponectin levels to a greater extent than in males. Fasting-induced changes
in hepatic expression of genes related to gluconeogenesis, glucose oxidation and fatty acid synthesis were the same in males
and females. In females, adaptation to fasting was associated with up-regulation of UCP3 and CPT1 expressions in muscle and
multidirectional changes in SLC2A4 gene expressions: Increased in muscle and decreased in visceral White Adipose Tissue
(WAT). In males, down-regulation of PPAR??³ in visceral and subcutaneous WAT was the only adaptation to fasting. Thus
fasting induced more pronounced increase in the FGF21 signaling and wider range of transcriptional responses in females
compare to males. These data can be taken into account when using fasting for body weight regulation.This study
was supported by the Russian Science Foundation, grant No 17-15-01036.
Nadezhda Bazhan is the Chief Researcher at the Institute of Cytology and Genetics, Russian Academy of Sciences and Professor of Novosibirsk State University.