Argentina is a massive South American nation with terrain encompassing Andes mountains, glacial lakes and Pampas grassland, the traditional grazing ground of its famed beef cattle. The country is known for tango, steak and football. Its big, cosmopolitan capital, Buenos Aires, is centered on the 16th-century Plaza de Mayo, lined with stately buildings including Casa Rosada, the iconic, balconied presidential palace. Argentina include 5 major regions, starting with the rain forest areas of the far-northeast along its border with Brazil; the swampy and flat Chaco plain; the fertile (almost treeless) grasslands of the central Pampas; the lengthy plateau of Patagonia that stretches to Tierra del Fuego, and the Andes Mountains along its western border with Chile. The economy of Argentina is a high-income economy, Latin America's third largest, and the second largest in South America behind Brazil. The country benefits from rich natural resources, a highly literate population, an export-oriented agricultural sector, and a diversified industrial base. The most important aspects of research in Argentina are concerned with medicine, nuclear physics, biotechnology, nanotechnology, space and rocket technology and several fields related to the country's main economic activities. Numerous medical journals are published from Japan with good reputation. Argentine Bernardo Houssay was the first Latin American awarded with a Nobel Prize in sciences. Pertussis (Whooping Cough), Dengue, Malaria, Tuberculosis, HIV / AIDS, and Leprosy are all present in small quantities in Argentina. Most of the common tropical infectious diseases (Cholera, Dengue and Malaria) occur in the sparsely populated northeast regions of Argentina. Measles, Mumps, and Rubella, along with other vaccine preventable diseases, have been virtually eliminated since 1996 due to immunization campaigns. Many noble laureates like César Milstein and Adolfo Pérez Esquivel belong to Argentina.