Italy officially the Italian Republic is a unitary parliamentary republic in Europe.[note 1] Italy covers an area of 301,338 km2 (116,347 sq mi) and has a largely temperate seasonal climate; due to its shape, it is often referred to in Italy as lo Stivale (the Boot). With 61 million inhabitants, it is the 4th most populous EU member state.
Located in the heart of the Mediterranean Sea, Italy shares open land borders with France, Switzerland, Austria, Slovenia, San Marino and Vatican City.
Italy has a capitalist mixed economy, ranking as the third-largest in the Eurozone and the eighth-largest in the world.The country is a founding member of the G7, G8, the Eurozone and the OECD.
Italy is regarded as one of the world's most industrialised nations and a leading country in world trade and exports. The country is well known for its creative and innovative business, a large and competitive agricultural sector. Italy is the world's largest wine producer, and for its influential and high-quality automobile, machinery, food, design and fashion industry
Università di Bologna, Università di Roma, Università degli Studi di Milano, Università degli Studi di Padova, Politecnico di Torino, Università di Pisa, Universitá degli Studi di Roma, Università degli Studi di Firenze, Università degli Studi di Trento, Università degli Studi di Napoli Federico II, Università Cattolica del Sacro Cuore are some of universities that involve in various funding researches in the country.
Research Grants are developed to stimulate research cooperation Biomechanics, Biophysics, Biotechnology, Botany, Cell Biology, Developmental Biology, Ecology, Biodiversity, Environmental Biology, Trade and Industry. The Salk Institute for Biological Studies - The Salk Institute is a private, non-profit, research organization dedicated to fundamental research in biology and its relation to health, studying such challenging problems as the organization and operation of the brain, the control of gene activity, and the molecular origins of cancer, AIDS, and other diseases. Nobel laureates from the fields of physics, chemistry, economics, biology etc. include Giulio Natta, Guglielmo Marconi, Enrico Fermi, Emilio G. Segrè, Carlo Rubbia, Riccardo Giacconi, Ernesto Teodoro Moneta, Giusuè Carducci, Grazia Deledda, Luigi Pirandello, Franco Modigliani, Salvatore Quasimodo, Eugenio Montale, Camillo Golgi, Daniel Bovet, Salvador Luria, Renato Dulbecco, Rita Levi-Montalcini, Mario Capecchi