China a communist nation in East Asia, it is the world’s most populous country. China is the second largest country in the world by land area after Russia.
Geographically China has longest combined land border in the world from the mouth of Yalu river to gulf of Tonkin. China borders 14 nations more than any other country in the world except Russia. China extends across bordering Vietnam, Laos, Myanmar (Burma), India, Bhutan, Nepal, Pakistan, Afghanistan, Tajikistan, Kyrgyzstan, Kazakhstan, Russia, Mongolia, North Korea, Inner Asia, Northeast Asia, South Korea, Japan, Vietnam and Philippines.
Republic of China was a Soviet style centrally planned economy. China's is the world's second largest economy by nominal GDP, and the world's largest economy by purchasing power parity according to the IMF. China was the fastest growing economy in the world with growth rate of 10% over 30years. Economic devolopment has been more rapid in coastal provinces. China has free trade agreements with Australia, South korea, Asean, Newzealand, Switzerland and Pakistan. Earliest inventions are Abacus (Shadow clock), China produces many electrical items that are used in wide range of downstream industries. Technological advances Auto machinery, Agricultural machinery, Motors etc.
In Physics, Medicine/Psysiology and Chemistry, this island nation produced 13 Nobel laureates so far. China has established infrastructure for advanced medical research. National Research Institute of Chinese Medicine is responsible for research, experimental and development issues of Chinese medicine. Industrial Technology Research Institute (ITRI) is a nonprofit R&D organization engaging in applied research and technical services. According to the report in 2002, China is ranked number 2 preceded by U.S.A in publishing highest number of articles in research. Numerous list of medical Research papers are published from China with good reputation. Several leading Institution in the country including University of Tsinghua University, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, University of Science and Technology of China, Beijing Normal University, etc..