INDUCED ANTIBACTERIAL PROTEIN IN INSECTS: IMPLICATION IN DEFENSE SYSTEM IN DROSOPHILA
Department of Biochemistry, University of Allahabad, Allahabad-211002
|Corresponding Author: Deepti Pandey, Department of Biochemistry, University of Allahabad, Allahabad-211002,E-mail: [email protected]|
|Received: 19 July 2012 Accepted: 26 July 2012|
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Despite of lacking the adaptive immunity that is found in higher vertebrates, insects are able to defend themselves from a large battery of pathogens by multiple innate immune responses using molecular mechanisms. These defense systems are strikingly similar to the innate immune responses of other multi cellular organisms, including humans. In insect, defense system relies on several innate reactions including phagocytosis of bacteria, nodule formation and encapsulation with the immediate onset of proteolytic cascades leading to localized blood clotting, melanization and finally the production of antibacterial protein. These antibacterial proteins channelized a line of innate defense system after 3hr of bacterial infection through different signaling pathways like Toll and Imd pathway. This review summarizes the recent studies on defense system in different insects and evaluates the mechanism of such signaling pathways in Drosophila melanogaster.