INFLUENCE OF ENVIRONMENTAL FACTORS ON GERMINATION ECOLOGY OF CALLIGONUM COMOSUMA MEDICAL PLANT FROM ARID REGION OF SAUDI ARABIA
Environmental conditions may positively or negatively influence production, reproduction, and restoration of desert extinct vegetation. As desert plant populations decline, it is important to understand the potential impacts of the environment on the natural processes of plant reproduction. The objectives of this study are to provide fundamental information on sexual reproduction in a dominant species of Calligonum comosum. This plant species is one of the famous plants characterizing the habitat of Saudi Arabia environment, commonly used in traditional medicine. We investigated the effects of temperature, soil depth, soil moisture and salinity on the germination of C. comosum. As a results of these syude, the C. comosum seeds give the higher germination percentage at 10/20°C, followed at a temperature of 18/28°C, the best germination percentage was at a depth of 0.5 cm. And we found that the regular irrigation every 48 hours by 50 ml gave the best results, the germination rates decreased when concentrations of sodium chloride increased. From results we can conclude that the C. comosum plant has numerous adaptive qualities that enable it to withstand environmental pressures. It is also considered one of the plants adapted to the lack of water, grow in low salinity soil. And the best conditions for seed germination is a moderate degree of temperature 10/20 °C at a depth of no more than 0.5 cm from soil surface, and the rate of irrigation regulatory every 48 hours.It was also noted that the high temperatures may inhibit the germination process and this may be one of the direct causes of decrease the germination of the seeds of the C. comosum plant in the summer.