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MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small non-coding RNA molecules that play pivotal roles in post-transcriptional regulation of gene expression, especially via mRNA silencing. The miRNAs are known to bind complementary mRNA molecules thereby preventing its translation into functional proteins. This can be achieved either by cleaving it or shortening its poly (A) tail or translating it into non-functional protein complexes. The role of miRNAs in metabolic regulation is a recently unravelled concept. It has been proposed that miR-33a and miR-33b regulate cholesterol and lipid metabolism while miR-103 and miR-107 regulate insulin and glucose breakdown pathways. It has also been proposed that the metabolic reprogramming of cancer cells involve miRNA mediated suppression of tumor suppressor genes which is often simultaneous with activation of oncogenic genes. The metabolic roles of miRNAs were realized further after the discovery of extracellular miRNAs. It was proposed that these extracellular miRNAs can travel to various parts of the body and function as endocrine signalling molecules. The discovery of circulating miRNAs has also instigated numerous research studies that are focussed on studying the possible roles of miRNAs as disease markers, which can then be targeted for ameliorating the disease symptoms and responses. This special issue is aimed towards the publication of research findings that highlight the role of miRNAs in the manifestation of diseases and as targets for designing new therapeutic strategies for its treatment. The special issue will specifically address the following scientific queries: • Pathogenic roles of circulating miRNAs • Direct and indirect roles of miRNAs in regulating metabolic pathways • Role of miRNAs oncogenesis • Targeting miRNAs as a method for treatment of diseases The special issue is primarily conceived to create general awareness regarding the therapeutic roles of miRNAs in the treatment of metabolic diseases.